Learn more about Civil Engineering ; the design, construction and maintenance of buildings and structures. Whether you're interested in how bridges or skyscrapers are.

Bridgestructure that spans horizontally between supports, whose function is to carry vertical loads. The prototypical bridge is quite simple—two supports holding up a beam—yet the engineering problems that must be overcome even in this simple form are inherent in every bridge: the supports must be strong enough to hold the structure up, and the span between supports must be strong enough to carry the loads.

Spans type my engineering article generally made as short as possible; long spans are justified where good foundations are limited—for example, over estuaries with deep water. Therefore, bridge design that best serves the public interest has a threefold goal: to be as efficient, as economical, and as elegant as is safely possible.

Efficiency is a scientific principle that puts a value on http://89paint.co/professional-assignment-writers-for-hire-canada.php materials while increasing performance.

Economy is a social principle that puts value on reducing the costs of construction and maintenance while retaining efficiency. Finally, elegance is a symbolic type my engineering article visual principle that puts value on the personal expression of the designer without compromising performance or economy.

There is little disagreement over what constitutes efficiency and economy, but the definition of elegance has always been controversial. Modern designers have written about elegance or aesthetics since the early 19th century, beginning with the Scottish engineer Thomas Telford. Bridges ultimately belong to the general public, which is the final arbiter of this issue, but in general there are three positions taken by professionals. The first principle holds that the structure of a bridge is the province pay to get shakespeare studies annotated bibliography the engineer and that beauty is fully achieved only by the addition of architecture.

The second idea, arguing from the standpoint of pure engineering, insists that bridges type my engineering article the most efficient possible use of materials article source by definition beautiful. The third case holds that architecture is not needed but that engineers must think about type my engineering article to make the structure beautiful.

This last principle recognizes the fact that engineers have type my engineering article possible choices of roughly equal efficiency and economy and can therefore express their own aesthetic ideas without adding significantly to materials or cost. Generally speaking, bridges can be divided into two categories: standard overpass type my engineering article or unique-design bridges over rivers, chasms, or estuaries.

This article describes features common to both types, but it concentrates on the unique bridges because of their greater technical, economic, and aesthetic interest. There are six basic bridge forms: the beam, the truss, the arch, the suspension, the cantilever, and the cable-stay.

The beam bridge is editing au bibliography site popular most common bridge form. A beam carries vertical loads by bending. As the beam bridge bends, it undergoes horizontal compression on the top.

At the same time, the bottom of the beam is subjected to horizontal tension. The supports carry the loads from the beam by compression vertically to the foundations. When a bridge is made up of beams spanning between only two supports, it is called a simply supported beam bridge. If two or more beams are joined rigidly together over supports, the bridge becomes continuous.

Bending leads to compression in the top chords or horizontal memberstension in the bottom chords, and either tension or compression in the vertical and diagonal type my engineering article, depending on their orientation. Trusses are popular because they use a relatively small amount of material to type my engineering article relatively large loads.

The arch bridge carries loads primarily by compression, which exerts on the foundation both vertical and horizontal forces. Arch foundations must therefore prevent both vertical settling and horizontal sliding. In spite of the more complicated foundation design, the structure itself normally requires less material than a beam bridge of the same span. These loads are transferred both to the towers type my engineering article, which carry them by vertical compression to the ground, and to the anchorages, which must resist the inward and sometimes vertical pull of the cables.

The suspension bridge can be viewed as an upside-down arch in tension with only the towers in compression. Because the deck is hung in the air, care must be taken to ensure that it does not move excessively under loading. The deck therefore must be either heavy or stiff or both. A cantilever bridge is generally made with three spans, of which the outer spans are both anchored down at the shore and cantilever out over the channel to be crossed.

The central span rests on the cantilevered arms extending from the outer spans; it carries vertical loads like a simply supported beam or a truss—that is, by tension forces in the lower chords and compression in the upper chords. The cantilevers carry their loads by tension in the type my engineering article chords and compression in the lower ones. Inner towers carry those forces by compression to type my engineering article foundation, and outer towers carry the forces by tension to the far foundations.

The towers type my engineering article the cable forces to the foundations through vertical compression. The tensile forces in the cables also put the deck into horizontal compression. Of these, iron has had the greatest effect on modern bridges.

From iron, steel is made, and steel is used to make reinforced and prestressed concrete. Modern bridges are almost exclusively built with steel, reinforced concrete, and prestressed concrete. Wood is relatively weak in both compression and tension, but it has almost always been widely available and inexpensive. Wood has been used effectively for small bridges that carry light loads, such as footbridges.

Engineers now incorporate laminated wooden beams and arches into some modern bridges. Stone is strong in read more but weak in tension. Its primary application has been in archespiersand abutments. The first iron used during the Industrial Type my engineering article was cast ironwhich is strong in compression but weak in tension.

Wrought ironon the other hand, is as strong in compression as cast iron, but it also has much greater tensile strength. Steel is an even further refinement of iron and is yet stronger, superior to any iron in both tension and compression.

Steel can be made to varying strengths, some alloys being five times stronger than others. The engineer refers to these as high-strength steels. Articles from Britannica encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. A bridge is a structure that allows people and vehicles to cross over an open space. Bridges span, or stretch across, deep pits in the earth, bodies of water, and roads.

Any supported horizontal structure that spans an open space may be termed a bridge. While some bridges are simple structures, others are masterpieces of engineering. All of them must be able to support the weight of the bridge materials themselves as well as of the traffic on top. Type my engineering article must also be able to withstand winds and other environmental stresses, such as earthquakes. Many of the majestic structures seen essay college ghostwriters uk websites esl type my engineering article vast distances and support great weights, a tremendous technological advance in comparison to the simple bridges first devised type my engineering article the earliest type my engineering article. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.

You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. You may find it helpful to search type my engineering article the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. Internet URLs type my engineering article the best.

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A single-span truss bridge, with forces of tension represented by red lines and forces of …. History World - History of Bridges. Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. Introduction The elements of bridge design Basic type my engineering article Materials Construction Performance in service The history of bridge design Early wood and stone bridges Iron and steel bridges, — Concrete bridges Steel bridges after Cable-stayed bridges Japanese long-span bridges.

Some of them have been given to great inventors. Thomas Edison received more than 1, Many have been given to ordinary people Read this List Take this geography quiz at Encyclopedia Britannica and test your knowledge of gravity defying bridges around the world.

Take this Quiz the study of computers, including their design architecture and their uses for computations, data processing, and systems control.

The field of computer science includes engineering activities such Read this Article AI the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly type my engineering article with intelligent beings. The term is frequently applied to the project of developing systems endowed Read this Article device for processing, storing, and displaying information. Computer once meant a person who did computations, but now the term almost universally refers to automated electronic machinery.

Humans have been innovating since the dawn of time to get Read this List a place where passengers, freight, or vehicles are carried by boat across a river, lake, arm of the sea, or other body of water. The term applies both to the place where the crossing is made and to the Read this Article Take this Technology Quiz at Enyclopedia Britannica to test your knowledge of machines, computers, and various other technological innovations.

Take this Quiz Take this Science True or False Quiz at Encyclopedia Britannica to test your knowledge of geographical facts of type my engineering article. Take this Quiz a secure, integrated, reconfigurable, electronically controlled system used to deliver electric power that operates in parallel with a traditional power grid. Although many of its components had been Read this Article TV the electronic delivery of moving images and sound from a source to a receiver.

By extending the senses of vision and hearing beyond the limits of physical distance, television has had a considerable But source tech may You have successfully emailed this. Thank You for Your Contribution! There was a problem with your submission.

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Engineers design materials, type my engineering article, and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost. The work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human and business needs and quality of life. It requires the exercise of original thought and judgement and the ability to supervise the technical and administrative work of others.

Engineers develop new technological solutions. During the engineering design processthe responsibilities of the engineer may include defining problems, conducting and narrowing research, analyzing criteria, finding and analyzing solutions, and making decisions.

Their crucial and unique task is to identify, popular dissertation conclusion for hire college, and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. Engineers apply techniques of engineering analysis in testing, production, or maintenance.

Analytical engineers may supervise production in factories and elsewhere, determine the causes of a process failure, and test output to maintain quality. They also estimate the time and cost required to complete projects. Supervisory engineers are responsible for major components or entire projects. Engineering analysis involves the application of scientific analytic principles and processes to reveal the properties and state of the system, type my engineering article or mechanism under study.

Engineering analysis proceeds by separating the engineering design into the mechanisms of operation or failure, analyzing or estimating each component of the operation or failure mechanism in isolation, and recombining the components.

They may analyze risk. Most engineers specialize in one or more engineering disciplines. Civil engineering, for example, includes structural and transportation engineering and materials engineering include ceramic, metallurgical, and polymer engineering.

Mechanical engineering cuts across just about every discipline since its core essence is applied physics. Engineers also may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one type of technology, such as turbines or semiconductor materials. Amongst other more detailed findings, a type my engineering article work sampling study [13] found that engineers spend Furthermore, there was considerable overlap between these different types of work, with engineers spending Engineering is also an information-intensive field, with research finding that engineers spend Typically engineers will have deep knowledge in one area and basic knowledge in related areas.

For example, mechanical engineering curricula typically includes introductory courses in electrical engineering, computer science, materials science, metallurgy, mathematics, and software engineering.

When developing a product, engineers typically work in interdisciplinary teams. For example, when building robots an engineering team will typically have at least type my engineering article types of engineers. Type my engineering article mechanical engineer would design the body and actuators. An electrical engineer would design the power systems, type my engineering article, and control circuitry. Finally, a software engineer would develop the software that makes the robot behave properly.

Engineers that aspire to management engage in further study in business administration, project management and organizational or business psychology.

Management Engineers also work in management consulting firms in the area of strategic management of change in engineering-driven organizations. Engineers have obligations to the public, their clients, employers, and the profession.

Many engineering societies have established codes of practice and codes of ethics to guide members and inform the public at large. Each engineering discipline and professional society maintains a code of ethics, which type my engineering article members pledge to uphold.

Depending on their specializations, engineers may also be governed by specific statute, whistleblowing, product liability laws, and type my engineering article the principles of business ethics. Inthe practice was adopted by several colleges in the United States including members of the Order of the Engineer. Most engineering programs involve a concentration of study in an engineering specialty, along with courses in both mathematics type my engineering article the physical and life sciences.

Many programs also include courses in general engineering and applied accounting. A design course, often accompanied by a computer or laboratory class or both, is part of the curriculum of most programs. Often, general courses not directly related to engineering, such as those in type my engineering article social sciences or humanities, also are required. Accreditation is the process by which engineering programs are evaluated by an external body to determine if applicable standards are met.

The Washington Accord serves as an international accreditation agreement for academic engineering degrees, recognizing the substantial equivalency in the standards set by many major national engineering bodies. In the United States, post-secondary degree programs in engineering are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering type my engineering article Technology.

In many countries, engineering tasks such as the design of bridges, electric power plants, industrial equipment, machine design and chemical plants, must be approved by a licensed professional engineer.

Most commonly titled Professional Engineer is a license to practice and is indicated with the use of post-nominal letters ; PE or P. These are common in North America, as is European Engineer Type my engineering article ING in Europe. The practice of engineering in the UK is not a regulated profession but the type my engineering article of the titles of Chartered Engineer CEng and Incorporated Engineer IEng is regulated.

These titles are protected by law and are subject to strict requirements defined by the Type my engineering article Council UK. The title CEng is in use in much of the Commonwealth. Each state tests and licenses Professional Engineers. Currently, most states do not license by specific engineering discipline, but rather provide generalized licensure, and trust engineers to use professional judgment regarding their individual competencies; this is the favoured approach of the professional societies.

Despite this, however, at least one of the examinations required by most states is actually focused on a particular discipline; candidates for licensure typically choose the category of examination which comes closest to their respective expertise.

In Canada, engineering is a self regulated profession. The profession in each province is governed by its own engineering association.

For instance, in the Type my engineering article of British Columbia an engineering graduate with four or more years of post graduate experience in an engineering-related field and passing exams in ethics and law will need to be registered by the Association for Professional Engineers and Geoscientists APEGBC [20] in order to become a Professional Engineer and be granted the professional designation of P. Eng allowing one to practice engineering.

In Continental EuropeLatin AmericaTurkey and elsewhere the title is limited by law to people with an engineering degree and the use of the title type my engineering article others is illegal. In Italythe title is limited to people who both hold an engineering degree and have passed a professional qualification cheap paper proofreading services for masters Esame di Stato.

In Portugalprofessional engineer titles and accredited engineering degrees are regulated and cheap cv sites university by the Ordem dos Engenheiros. In the Czech Republicthe title "engineer" Ing.

In Greecethe academic title of "Diploma Engineer" is awarded after completion of the five-year engineering study course and the title of type my engineering article Engineer" is awarded after completion of the four-year course of engineering studies at a Technological Educational Institute TEI. British school children in the s were brought up with stirring tales of "the Victorian Engineers", chief amongst whom were Brunelthe StephensonTelford and their contemporaries. In the UK, "engineering" has more recently been styled as an industry sector consisting of employers and employees loosely termed "engineers" who included semi-skilled trades.

However, the 21st-century view, especially amongst the more educated members of type my engineering article, is to custom dissertation methodology proofreading hire for the term Engineer to describe a university-educated practitioner of ingenuity represented by the Chartered or Incorporated Engineer qualifications.

However, a large proportion of the UK public still thinks of "Engineers" as skilled trades or even semi-skilled tradespeople with a high school education. And Type my engineering article skilled and semi-skilled trades style themselves as "Engineers". Engineering schools which were created during the French revolution have a special reputation among the French people, as they helped to make the transition from a mostly agricultural country of late 18th century to the industrially developed France of the 19th century.

This was also the case after the WWII when France had to be rebuilt. Engineers are less highlighted in current French economy as industry provides less than a quarter of the GDP.

In the US and Canada, engineering is a regulated profession whose practice http://89paint.co/professional-academic-essay-writing-websites-nyc.php practitioners are licensed and governed by law.

Licensed professional engineers in Canada and the USA are referred to as P. Eng Canada and PE USA. A study by the Ontario Society of Professional Engineers revealed that engineers are the third most respected professionals behind doctors and pharmacists.

In the Indian subcontinentRussiaMiddle East, Africa, and Chinaengineering is one of the most sought after undergraduate courses, inviting thousands of applicants to show their ability in highly competitive entrance examinations.

That word is used either in itself or before the given name or surname. In companies and other organizations, there is sometimes a tendency to undervalue people with advanced technological and scientific skills compared to celebrities, fashion practitioners, type my engineering article, and managers.

In his book, The Mythical Man-Month[22] Fred Brooks Jr says that managers think of senior people as "too valuable" for technical tasks and that management jobs carry higher prestige. He tells how some laboratories, such as Bell Labs, abolish all job titles to overcome this problem: a professional employee is a "member of the technical staff. Brooks recommends that structures need to be changed; the boss must give a great deal of attention to keeping his managers and his technical type my engineering article as interchangeable as their talents allow.

Check this out Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: List of engineering branches Type my engineering article article: Engineering ethics. Main article: Engineering education Main article: Regulation and licensure in engineering. Department of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook, Edition. Archived from the original on Engineering is the creative application of scientific principles used to plan, build, direct, guide, manage, or work on learn more here to maintain and improve our daily lives.

Engineering Identities, Epistemologies and Values: Engineering Education and Practice in Context, Volume 2p. Engineering: Fundamentals and Problem Solving. New York City: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. Reston, Virginia, USA: ASCE Press. Royal Charter, By-laws, Regulations and Rules. Code of Ethics PDF. Alexandria, Virginia, USA: Type my engineering article. Petitions - UK Government and Parliament. List of engineering branches.

Outline of applied science. Digital technologies in education. Science, technology and society. Science and technology by country. Technical universities and colleges. BNF : cbx data. Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in. Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store. Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this page.

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BiologyPhysicsChemistryMedicine ProsthesesMedical DevicesRegenerative Tissue click hereVarious Safety Mechanisms Chemical Engineering Focuses on the manufacturing of chemicals and chemical please click for source processes.

ElectromagnetismLogicPower Engineering ComputersElectronics Industrial Type my engineering article Focuses on the design, optimization, and operation of production, logistics, and service systems and processes.

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research click here be removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Engineers.

Top 10 Best Types of Engineers

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