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The Exceptional Performance team has identified a number of best practices for making web pages fast. The list includes 35 best practices divided into 7 categories. Most of top content writing websites au time is tied up in downloading all the components in the page: images, stylesheets, scripts, Flash, etc.

Reducing the number of components in turn reduces the number of HTTP requests required to render the page. Top content writing websites au is the key to top content writing websites au pages. But is there a way to build top content writing websites au with richer content while also achieving fast response times?

Here are some techniques for reducing the number of HTTP requests, while still supporting rich page designs. Combined files are a way to reduce the number of HTTP requests by combining all scripts into a single script, and similarly combining all CSS into a single stylesheet.

Combining files is more challenging visit web page the scripts and stylesheets vary from page to page, but making this part of your release process improves response times. CSS Sprites are the preferred method for reducing the number of image requests. Combine your background images into a single image and use the CSS background-image and background-position properties to display the desired image segment.

Image maps combine multiple images into a single image. The overall size is about the same, but reducing the number of HTTP requests speeds up the page.

Top content writing websites au maps only work if the images are contiguous in the page, such as a navigation bar. Defining the coordinates of image maps can be tedious and error prone. Inline images use the data: URL scheme to embed the image data in the actual page. This can increase the size of your HTML document. Combining inline images into your cached stylesheets is a way to reduce HTTP requests and avoid increasing the size of your pages.

Inline images are not yet supported across all major browsers. Reducing the number of HTTP requests in your page is the place to start. This is the most important guideline for improving performance for first time visitors. Making your page top content writing websites au for these first time visitors is key to a top content writing websites au user experience.

But where should you start? Depending on the application, changing the architecture could include daunting tasks such as synchronizing session state and replicating database transactions across server locations. Attempts to reduce the distance between users and your content could be delayed by, or never pass, this application architecture step. This is the Performance Golden Rule. A content delivery network CDN is a collection of web servers distributed across multiple locations to deliver content more efficiently to users.

The server selected for delivering content to a specific user is typically based on a measure of network top content writing websites au. For example, the server with the fewest network hops or the server with the quickest response time is chosen.

For start-up companies and private web sites, the cost of a CDN service can be prohibitive, but as your target audience grows larger and becomes more global, a CDN is necessary to achieve fast response times. Switching to a CDN is a relatively easy code change that will dramatically improve the speed of your web site.

A first-time visitor to your page may have to make several HTTP requests, but by using the Expires header you make those components cacheable. This avoids top content writing websites au HTTP requests on subsequent page views. Expires headers are most often used with images, but they should be used on all components including scripts, stylesheets, and Flash this web page. Browsers and proxies use a cache to reduce the number and size of HTTP requests, making web pages load faster.

A web server uses the Expires header in the HTTP response to tell the client how long a component can be cached. If your server is Apache, use the ExpiresDefault directive to set an expiration date relative to the current date.

This example of the ExpiresDefault directive sets the Expires date 10 years out from the time of top content writing websites au request. Using a far future Expires header affects page views only after top content writing websites au user has already visited your site.

Therefore the impact of this performance improvement depends on how often users hit your pages with a primed cache.

A "primed cache" already contains all of the components in the page. We measured this at Yahoo! But there are other variables that affect response times. Compression reduces response times by reducing the size of the HTTP response. If the web server sees this header university essay custom college help the request, it may compress the response using one of top content writing websites au methods listed by the client.

The web server notifies the web client of this via the Content-Encoding header in the response. Gzip is the most popular and effective compression method at this time. It was developed by the GNU project and standardized by RFC If you use Apache, the module configuring gzip depends on your version: Apache 1.

There are Verizon cheap argumentative essay proofreading website london resuscitative issues with browsers and proxies that may cause a mismatch in what the browser expects and what it receives with regard to compressed content.

Fortunately, these edge cases are dwindling as the use of older browsers drops off. The Apache modules help out by adding appropriate Vary response headers automatically. Servers choose what to gzip based on file type, but are typically too limited in what they decide to compress.

Most web sites gzip their HTML documents. Image and PDF files should not be gzipped because they are already top content writing websites au. Trying to gzip them not only wastes CPU but can potentially increase file sizes.

Gzipping as many file types as possible is an easy way to reduce page weight and accelerate the user experience. This Please professional academic essay writers services canada veins because putting stylesheets in the HEAD allows the page to render progressively.

Front-end engineers that care about performance want a page to load progressively; that is, we want the browser to display whatever content it has as soon as possible. This is especially important for pages with a lot of content and for users on slower Internet connections.

The importance of giving users visual feedback, such as progress indicators, has been well researched and documented. In our case the HTML page is the progress indicator! When the browser loads the page progressively the header, the navigation bar, the logo at the top, etc. This improves the overall user experience.

The problem with putting stylesheets near the bottom of the document is that it prohibits progressive rendering in many browsers, including Internet Explorer. These browsers block rendering rhetorical analysis essay websites united states avoid top content writing websites au to redraw elements of the page if their styles change. The user is stuck viewing a blank white page.

The HTML specification clearly states that stylesheets are to be included in the HEAD of the page: "Unlike A, [LINK] may only appear in the HEAD section of a document, although it may appear any number of times. The optimal solution is to top content writing websites au the HTML specification and load your stylesheets in the document HEAD.

If you serve your images from multiple hostnames, you can get more than two downloads to occur in parallel. If, for example, the top content writing websites au uses document. There might also be scoping issues. In many cases, there are ways to workaround these situations. An alternative suggestion that often comes up is to use deferred scripts.

The DEFER attribute indicates that the script does not contain document. In Internet Explorer, the script may best cover letter writing for hire united states deferred, but not as much as desired. If a script can be deferred, it can also be moved to the bottom of the page. That will make your web pages load faster. They were supported top content writing websites au Internet Explorer starting with version 5, but were deprecated starting with IE8.

As an example, the background color could be set to alternate every hour using CSS expressions: Top content writing websites au shown here, the expression method accepts a JavaScript expression. The CSS property is set to the result of evaluating the JavaScript expression. The expression method is ignored by other browsers, so it is useful for setting properties in Internet Explorer needed to create a consistent experience across browsers.

The problem with expressions is that they are evaluated more frequently than most people expect. Not only are they evaluated when the page is rendered and resized, but top content writing websites au when the page is scrolled and even when the user moves the mouse over the page. Adding a counter to the CSS expression allows us to keep track of when and how often a CSS expression is evaluated. Moving the mouse around the page can easily generate more than 10, evaluations.

One way to reduce the number of times your CSS expression is evaluated is to use one-time expressions, where the first time the expression is evaluated it sets the style property to an explicit value, which replaces the CSS expression. If the style property must be set dynamically throughout the life of the page, using event handlers instead of CSS expressions is an alternative approach. If you must use CSS expressions, remember that they may be evaluated thousands of times and could article source the performance of your page.

However, before these considerations arise you should ask a more basic question: Should JavaScript and CSS be contained in external files, or inlined in the page itself? Using external files in the real world generally produces faster pages because the JavaScript and CSS files are cached by the browser.

JavaScript and CSS that are inlined in HTML documents get downloaded every time the HTML document is requested. This reduces the number of HTTP requests that are needed, but increases the size of the HTML document. On the other hand, if the JavaScript and CSS are in external files cached by the browser, the size of the HTML document is reduced without increasing the number of HTTP requests. The key factor, then, is the frequency with which external JavaScript and CSS components are cached relative to the number of HTML documents top content writing websites au. This factor, although difficult to quantify, can be gauged using various metrics.

If users on your site have multiple page views per session and many of your pages re-use the same scripts and stylesheets, there is a greater potential benefit from cached external files. Many web top content writing websites au fall in the middle of these dissertation conclusion ghostwriting services london. For these sites, the best solution generally is to deploy the JavaScript and CSS as external files.

The only exception where inlining is preferable is with home pages, such as Yahoo! Home pages that have few perhaps only one page view per session may find that inlining JavaScript and CSS results in faster end-user response times. For front pages that are typically the first of many page views, there are techniques that leverage the reduction of HTTP requests that inlining provides, as well as the caching benefits achieved through using external files. One such technique is to inline JavaScript and CSS in the front page, but dynamically download the external files after the page has finished loading.

When you type www. DNS has a cost. It typically takes milliseconds for DNS to lookup the IP address for a given hostname. DNS lookups are cached top content writing websites au better click here. Internet Explorer caches DNS lookups for 30 minutes by default, as specified by the DnsCacheTimeout registry setting. Firefox caches DNS lookups for 1 minute, controlled by the network.

Fasterfox changes this to 1 hour. Reducing the number of unique hostnames reduces the number of DNS lookups. Reducing the number of unique hostnames has the potential to reduce the amount of parallel downloading that takes place in the page.

Avoiding DNS lookups cuts response times, but reducing parallel downloads may increase response times. My guideline is to split these components across at top content writing websites au two but no more than four hostnames. This results in a good compromise between reducing DNS lookups and allowing a high degree of parallel downloads. When code is minified all comments are removed, as well as unneeded white space characters space, newline, and tab.

In the case of JavaScript, this improves response time performance because the size of the downloaded file is reduced. Two popular tools for minifying JavaScript code are JSMin and YUI Compressor. The YUI compressor can also minify CSS. Obfuscation is an alternative optimization that can be applied to source code. In a survey of ten top U.

Although obfuscation has a higher size reduction, minifying JavaScript is less top content writing websites au. As the top content writing websites au and size of JavaScript and CSS increases, so will the savings gained by minifying your code. All the information necessary for a redirect is in the headers. The body of the response is typically empty. Despite their names, neither a nor a response is cached in practice unless additional headers, such as Expires or Cache-Controlindicate it should top content writing websites au. The meta refresh tag and Write me esl masters essay on hillary clinton are other ways to direct users to a different URL, but check this out you must do a redirect, the preferred technique is to use the standard 3xx HTTP status codes, primarily to ensure the back button works correctly.

The main thing to remember is that redirects slow down the user experience. Inserting a redirect between the user and the HTML document delays everything in the page since nothing in the page can be rendered and no components can start being downloaded until the HTML document has methodology australia cheap service editing dissertation. One of the most wasteful redirects happens frequently and web developers are generally not aware of it.

Connecting an old web site to a new one is another common use for redirects. Others include connecting different parts of a website and directing the user based on certain conditions type of browser, type of user account, etc.

Using a redirect to connect two web sites is simple and http://89paint.co/custom-curriculum-vitae-editing-for-hire-online.php little additional coding. Although using redirects http://89paint.co/professional-argumentative-essay-writer-service-for-mba.php these situations reduces the complexity for developers, it degrades the user experience.

A review of the ten top U. Two main factors increase the odds of a script being duplicated in a single web page: team size and number of scripts. When it does happen, duplicate scripts hurt performance by creating unnecessary HTTP requests and wasted JavaScript execution. Unnecessary HTTP requests happen in Internet Explorer, but not in Firefox.

In Internet Explorer, if an external script is included twice and is not cacheable, it generates two HTTP requests during page loading. Even if the script is cacheable, extra HTTP requests occur when the user reloads the page. In addition to generating wasteful HTTP requests, time is wasted evaluating the script multiple times. This redundant JavaScript execution happens in both Firefox and Internet Explorer, regardless of whether the script is cacheable.

One way to avoid accidentally including the same script twice is to implement a script management module in your templating system. The typical way to include a script is to use the Top content writing websites au tag in your HTML page. In addition to preventing the same script from being inserted multiple times, this function could handle other issues with scripts, such as dependency checking and adding version numbers to script filenames to support far future Expires headers.

An "entity" is another word a "component": images, scripts, stylesheets, etc. ETags were added to provide a mechanism for validating entities that is more flexible than the last-modified date. An ETag is a string that uniquely identifies a specific version of a component. The only format constraints are that the string be quoted. Later, if the browser has to validate a component, it uses the If-None-Match header to pass the ETag back to the origin server.

If the ETags match, a status code is returned reducing the response by bytes for this example. If-Modified-Since: Continue reading, 12 Dec GMT. The problem with ETags is that they typically are constructed using attributes that make them unique to a specific server hosting a site. By default, both Apache and IIS embed data in the ETag that dramatically reduces the odds of the write cheap descriptive essay on hillary test succeeding on web sites with multiple servers.

The ETag top content writing websites au for Apache 1. Although a given file may reside in the same directory across multiple servers, and have the same file size, permissions, timestamp, etc.

The format for ETags on IIS is Filetimestamp:ChangeNumber. A ChangeNumber is a counter used to track configuration changes to IIS. Even if your components have a far future Expires header, a conditional GET request is still made whenever the user hits Reload or Refresh.

And removing the ETag top content writing websites au the size of the HTTP headers in both the response and subsequent requests. This Microsoft Top content writing websites au article describes how to top content writing websites au ETags.

In Apache, this is done by simply adding the following line to your Apache configuration file:. In many applications, whether or not the user is kept waiting depends on how Ajax is used. For example, in a web-based email client the user will be kept waiting for the results of an Top content writing websites au request to find all the email messages that match their search criteria.

The most important way to improve the performance of Ajax is to make the responses cacheable, as discussed in Add continue reading Expires or a Cache-Control Header. Some of the other rules also apply to Ajax The browser must be informed when to use a previously cached address book response versus requesting read article new one.

Even though your Ajax responses are created dynamically, and might only be applicable to a single user, they can still be cached. Doing so will make your Web 2. When users request a page, it can take anywhere from to ms for the backend server to stitch together the Check this out page.

During this time, the browser is idle as it waits for the data to arrive. In PHP you have the function flush. It allows you to send your partially ready HTML response to the browser so that. Top content writing websites au benefit is mainly seen on busy backends or light frontends. To write classic literature assignment good place to consider flushing is right after the HEAD because the HTML for the head is.

Mail team found that when using XMLHttpRequestPOST is implemented in the browsers as a two-step process:. The maximum URL length in IE is 2K, so if you send more than 2K data you might not be able to use GET. An interesting side affect is that POST without actually posting any data behaves like GET.

Based on the HTTP specsGET is meant for retrieving information, so it. The rest of the content and best research paper editing can wait. JavaScript is an ideal candidate for splitting before and after the onload event. Other places to look for candidates for post-loading include hidden content content that appears after a user action and images below the fold. Tools to help you out in your effort: YUI Top content writing websites au Loader allows you to delay images.

For an example in the wild take a look at Yahoo! In this top content writing websites au, the idea of progressive enhancement tells us that JavaScript, when supported, can. Preload may look like the opposite of post-load, but it actually has a different goal. By preloading components you can take advantage of the time the browser is idle and request components. This way when the user visits the next page, you could have most of the components already in.

A complex page means more bytes to download and it also means slower DOM access in JavaScript. It makes a difference. Are you using nested tables for layout purposes?. A great help with layouts are the YUI CSS utilities :. This is a chance to start fresh and think about your markup. And how many DOM elements are too many? Check other similar pages that have good markup. For example the Yahoo!

Home Page is a pretty busy page and still under elements HTML tags. Splitting components allows you to maximize parallel downloads. For example, you can host your HTML and dynamic content. For more information check. Iframes allow an HTML document to be inserted in the parent document. HTTP requests are expensive so making university assistance review custom article HTTP request and getting a useless response i.

Some sites have helpful s "Did you mean X? Particularly bad is when the link to an external JavaScript is wrong and the result is a First, this download will block parallel downloads. Next the browser may try to parse.

HTTP cookies are used for a variety of reasons such as authentication and personalization. Information about cookies is exchanged in the HTTP headers between web click the following article and browsers.

The take-home of this research:. Keep cookie sizes as low as possible to minimize the impact on the user response time. Be mindful of setting cookies at the appropriate domain level so other sub-domains are not affected. Set an Expires date appropriately. An earlier Expires date or none removes the cookie sooner, improving the user response time. When the browser makes a request for a static image and sends cookies together with the request.

So they only create network traffic for no good. You should make here static components are requested with cookie-free requests. If your domain is www. In this case, you can buy a whole new domain, host your static. Another benefit of hosting static components on a cookie-free see more is that some proxies might refuse to cache.

On a related note, if you wonder if you should use top content writing websites au. Accessing DOM elements with JavaScript is slow so in order to have a more responsive page, you should:.

Sometimes pages feel less responsive because top content writing websites au too many event handlers attached to different. If you have 10 buttons inside a divattach only one event handler to the div wrapper, top content writing websites au of. Often all you need is the element you want to access to be available in the tree. One of the previous best practices states that CSS should be at the top in order to allow for.

The problem with this filter is that it blocks rendering and freezes the browser while the image is being downloaded. It also increases memory consumption and is applied per element, not per image, so the problem is multiplied. The best approach is to avoid AlphaImageLoader completely and use gracefully degrading PNG8 instead, which are fine in IE. After a designer is done with creating the images for your web page, there are still some things you can try before you.

FTP those images to your web server. This image also interferes with the download sequence, for example in IE when you request. Imagemagick can help you create small favicons. Note that this is the uncompressed size. This is where minification is important. For more information check " Performance Research, Part 5: iPhone Cacheability - Making it Stick " by Wayne Shea and Tenni Theurer. Packing components into a multipart document is like an email with attachments.

When you use this technique, first check if the user agent supports it iPhone does not. Image with empty string src attribute occurs more than one will expect. It appears in two form:.

Both forms cause the same effect: browser makes another request to your server. Internet Explorer makes a request to the directory in which the page is located. Safari and Chrome make a request to the actual page itself. Firefox 3 and earlier versions behave the same as Safari and Chrome, but version 3. Opera does not do anything when an empty image top content writing websites au is encountered.

Why is this behavior bad? Cripple your servers by sending a large amount of unexpected traffic, especially for pages that get millions of page views per day. Waste server computing cycles generating a page that will never be viewed. Possibly corrupt user data. If you are tracking state in the request, either by cookies or in another way, you have the possibility of destroying data.

Even though the image request does not return an image, all of the headers are read and accepted by the browser, including all cookies. While the rest of the response is thrown away, the damage may already be done. The root cause of this behavior learn more here the way that URI resolution is performed in browsers.

This behavior is defined in RFC - Uniform Resource Identifiers. When an empty string is encountered as a URI, it is considered a relative URI and is resolved according to the algorithm defined in section 5. This specific example, an empty string, is listed in section 5. Firefox, Safari, and Chrome are all resolving an empty string correctly per the specification, while Internet Explorer is resolving it incorrectly, apparently in line with an earlier version of the specification, RFC - Uniform Resource Identifiers this was obsoleted by RFC So technically, the browsers are doing what they are supposed to do to resolve relative URIs.

The problem is that in this context, the empty string is clearly unintentional. The src attribute must be present, and must contain a valid URL referencing a non-interactive, optionally animated, image resource that is neither paged nor scripted. Hopefully, browsers will not have this problem in the future.

This rule was inspired by Yahoo! For more information check out his article " Empty image src can destroy your site ". For the best viewing experience, we recommend that you disable your ad blocker. Yahoo Search in Apps. Best Practices for Speeding Up Your Web Site. Looking to optimize your mobile app experience? Check out Flurry Analytics. Download Flurry Mobile App.


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