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Professional college report examples Sample report

Click on the highlighted text to see the comments. Tutorial time: This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. A brief history of the scanner and its operation is initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of scanners in professional college report examples use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand held professional college report examples. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software.

It is concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of new sensor technology will continue to improve the quality of scanned images. It is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other types of technology such as digital cameras. The purpose of this report is to survey the current state of scanner technology and to briefly discuss predicted advancements in the field.

By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of scanners this report describes the main types of scanners in common best editing phd for homework website today and examines their performance in relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software.

The report then considers the effect of further technological advances in these four areas, as well as the deployment of new sensor technology professional college report examples the future development of scanners. The first scanner, initially referred to as a 'reading machine', was developed in by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer.

The device could scan printed material and then compare each professional college report examples to a set of standards in a matrix using, for the first time, the "best match principle" to determine the original message Blatner, Fleishman and Rothp.

This reading machine was to form the basis for the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines. An early improvement on the reading machine was the drum scanner. These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes PMT. Drum professional college report examples are still used in industry today because of the high quality images they produce. The development of smaller, more economical scanners such professional college report examples desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use followed the drum scanner as the number of computer users increased professional college report examples computer technology advanced.

Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of two and three dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on a hard-drive or floppy disk.

Writing online creative service editing the aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the user. It is now possible to deploy electronic acquisition to create an entire layout including all graphic elements from the same computer. This means manual stripping is no longer required Scanners, digital cameras check this out photo CDs Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for adding graphics and text to documents and have been readily adopted article source both business and domestic users.

A scanner is a device that uses a light source to electronically convert an image into binary data 0s and 1s. Professional college report examples binary data can then be used to store the scanned image on a computer. A scanner recreates an image by using small electronic components referred to as the scanner's 'eyes' Scanner tips The type of 'eyes' used professional college report examples today's scanners are charge-coupled devices CCD and photomultiplier tubes PMT.

These electronic eyes measure the amount of light reflected from individual points on the page and translate it to digital signals that correspond to the read more of each point Englander To create a file on the computer that represents a colour image, the scanner divides the image into a grid with many individual points called pixels or picture elements Scanner tips A scanning head, termed a row of 'eyes', reads professional college report examples the grid and assigns a number to each pixel based on the main colour in that pixel, using green, blue and professional college report examples. For example an aqua pixel would be saved as a number to represent the proportion of blue, green and red which represents the colour aqua Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs There are five main types of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners.

Drum scanners were widely used in the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances in scanner technology. As a result of their expense, these machines are primarily used by professionals in industry, where they are considered important due to the high-end quality image they produce and because they use PMT technology which is more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices CCDs and contact image sensor's CISs.

Drum scanners are difficult to operate and technicians operate these scanners by placing the item professional college report examples be scanned on a glass cylinder rotating at high speeds around the sensor Sullivan The most popular scanners for general use are flatbed scanners. This type of scanner is highly versatile because it is able to scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners operate by placing the item to be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it.

A transparency adapter is used to scan transparent originals such as slides or x-rays, and an automatic document feeder is available for scanning large numbers of documents Scanner tips Professional college report examples scanners have grown in popularity in recent years, particularly for small office or domestic use as they are reasonably priced, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space Scanner tips Most models of sheet-fed scanners professional college report examples an inbuilt document feeder to overcome the problem of manually feeding one sheet of paper at a time.

However the actual process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner may result in distortion as the image to be scanned moves over the scanning heads Scanner tips A further limitation of best admission essay ghostwriters services toronto scanners is that they are unable to scan three dimensional objects.

This type of scanner is used professional college report examples scan professional college report examples such as slides that need professional college report examples handling during scanning.

Unlike other professional college report examples, the scanning heads in slide scanners do not reflect light from professional college report examples image, but rather pass light through it. This enables these scanners to produce superior results without distortions caused by reflective light. To be able to scan small and detailed items, these scanners have a large number of eyes on the scanning head which produces a high quality result.

Slide scanners tend to be more expensive and less versatile than flatbed professional college report examples sheet-fed scanners as they are limited to only scanning slides and film. These scanners, however, are well suited professional college report examples users requiring high quality scans of large numbers of slides Scanner tips Hand held scanners are compact, portable scanners which are simply dragged across a page manually to capture an image.

These scanners are easy professional college report examples use and economical to purchase; however, their use is limited to text of up to four inches in diameter that does not require a high resolution.

For this reason, hand held scanners are unsuitable for colour images. A further disadvantage of hand held scanners is that the user must have a steady hand when scanning or the resulting image will be distorted Scanner tips The performance of a scanner can be examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software.

Resolution is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. It professional college report examples used to describe the amount of detail in an image Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas Higher resolution scanners are generally more expensive and produce superior results as they have a greater capacity to capture detail.

Scanners have two types of resolutions: optical resolution and interpolated resolution. Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can actually read. A current professional college report examples desktop scanner typically has a resolution of x dots per inch dpi Anderson This means that this scanner has a scanning head with sensors per inch, so it can sample dpi in one direction and dpi in the other direction by stopping the scanning head times per inch in both directions.

Some scanners stop the scanning head more frequently as it moves down the page, giving visit web page optical resolution of x dpi; however, scanning more frequently in one direction does not improve the result of the scan.

The basic requirement for scanning detailed images and line art from photos or other printed originals is an optical resolution of dpi. When scanning slides and negatives the minimum optical resolution is dpi. Interpolated resolution measures the number of pixels a scanner is able to predict. A scanner can turn a x dpi scan into a x dpi scan by looking in-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have looked like if it had been scanned.

This prediction is then used to insert new pixels in between the actual ones scanned. This technique is less precise than optical resolution; however it assists in improving the enlargement of scanned images. Bit depth refers to the amount of information that a scanner records for each pixel when converting an image to digital form.

Scanners differ in the amount of data they record for each pixel within an image. The simplest kinds of scanners only record professional college report examples related to black and white details and have a bit depth of 1 Anderson The minimum bit depth required for scanning photographs and documents is bits, while slides, negatives or transparencies need a scanner with at least bits. Thus for a scanner to produce a high quality scan with colour, a higher bit depth is required. In general, current scanners have a bit depth of 24, which means that 8 bits of information can be collected for the three primary colours used in scanning; blue, red and green Anderson This high resolution allows scanners to produce images close to photographic quality.

Dynamic range refers to the measurement of the range of tones a scanner can record on a scale of 0. Colour flat-bed scanners usually have a dynamic range of 2. A range of this measurement is unable to provide sind esl assignment ghostwriters services erkennen quality colour scans.

A dynamic range of 2. An even higher dynamic range of 3. A scanner, professional college report examples any type of hardware, requires software. Typically cheap dissertation introduction proofreading services for phd two most common pieces of software provided with scanners include optical character recognition OCR and image editing software.

Optical character recognition software translates the professional college report examples recorded in a scan, tiny dots, into a text file which professional college report examples be edited.

Image editing software allows the tones and colours of an image to be manipulated for better printing and display. Image editing also gives filters to apply special effects to scanned images The quality of scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth and dynamic range are enhanced and further professional college report examples. More sophisticated image editing and optical character recognition software professional college report examples is also resulting in superior quality scans.

Future advances are expected to result in the incorporation of specialized scanners into other types of http://89paint.co/cheap-book-review-writing-services-gb.php professional college report examples as the recently developed digital camera.

This device allows the user to take pictures of three-dimensional objects much like a regular camera, except that instead of using film, the objects are scanned by the camera in a similar process to the functioning of a flatbed scanner.

The relatively new area of sensor technology in the form of a contact image sensor CIS see Appendix 1 is expected to improve the functionality of scanners and the quality of images as it "replaces the cumbersome optical reduction technique with a single row of sensors" Grotta and Wienerp. Developers have already been able to produce a CIS scanner which is thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and cheaper to manufacture than a traditional CCD base device.

However, the quality of the scan is not as professional college report examples as its counterparts. Further development of CIS technology is needed to improve image quality and colour, and to address the problem of a limited or dpi. This report has identified five types of scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for professional purposes such as the drum scanner; others are used more broadly in the workplace and home such as flatbed scanners popular school essay usa to a lesser extent sheetfed scanners.

Scanners for specialized purposes have also been identified such as slide and handheld scanners. The http://89paint.co/book-review-editing-websites-london.php of these scanners is dependent upon their resolution, professional college report examples, dynamic range and software.

Scanners have professional college report examples significantly in recent years in terms of weight, size, price and speed, and the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is anticipated to produce further benefits to these areas as well as to scan quality.

The impact of these improvements is expected to increase the accessibility of scanner technology to a wider range visit web page users and its suitability for a wider range of purposes. In relation to this, the future of scanner technology seems to point to the convergence of different professional college report examples. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other types of technologies such as digital cameras, this web page, and photocopiers.

Professional college report examples can be expected to continue with other forms of technology in conjunction with further improvements to image quality, speed, price, size and weight. The Architecture of computer hardware and systems software. John Wiley, USA, p Historical background is then provided. This level of detail should be placed professional college report examples Section 2 'How Scanners Work'. Try to avoid repeating ideas in the body of the report by grouping ideas on the same topic or subtopic together.

It would be more appropriate to discuss such detailed aspects of scanning in the body of the report rather than the introduction. When a technical term such as this professional college report examples used it should be explained and related to the previous sentence s. This paragraph presents a clear definition of how a scanner works. The student's understanding of the concept is evident because the definition has been clearly expressed in the student's own words and the sources of the definition have been acknowledged.

The student has used information from only one source for Sections 3. This has severely limited the content of these sections of the report.

It would be better to use a more recent reference here. A reference which states this is editor site ca typical resolution in an critical analysis essay editor sites written in is inappropriate - computer technology develops very quickly.

The ideas in this paragraph are well expressed; however the source of these ideas has not been provided. The student needs to provide references. The concept of 'dynamic range' has not been sufficiently explained here. The student needs to provide further detail and to provide references to the sources of information used. As in the previous paragraph, the concept has not been sufficiently explained. Further detail is required, especially in relation to the current websites admission us paper editor and limitations of the software.

References to the sources used are also required here. This sentence is too general. It would be article source to include more specific information about the kind of enhancements being referred to.

This paragraph provides an appropriate amount of detail. Significant improvements to the field are identified in a brief discussion of new technology. However the student has again omitted references to the sources used in the discussion. This conclusion presents a brief summary of the main ideas that have been established professional college report examples the report. Unfortunately, it typifies the limitations of the report; that is, the content is too general - more specific detail is required.

A further improvement would be to provide more detail on how the current state and future position of scanner technology is related to the broader field of computer technology.

The number of sources used in an assignment depends on the quality of the sources - their currency, reliability, and the amount of relevant information. This professional college report examples list consists of 8 sources: 3 books, 1 magazine, and 4 commercial web sites. It does not meet the requirements of the assignment description. One source is used for a number of sections in the report. The reference list needs to include several academic journal articles and more magazine articles.

This would enable a wider range of opinions and ideas to be included. For this report, it is best to only use commercial web sites published by major manufacturing companies which provide technical and educational information rather cheap movie review ghostwriter websites liverpool online shopping or reseller sites, or sites developed by individuals.

Content and layout: The citations need to include appropriate details, and to be punctuated according to the Harvard Referencing System. For example, the country USA has been provided as the place of publication in a number of citations instead of the name of a city or town, the copyright dates of many of the web sites has not been included, and the inclusion of a page number for a book p. The use of punctuation in this reference list is inconsistent and not always appropriate.

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Assignment 1 - Topic: scanners. This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. Appendix 1 Image Sensor Scanner.

Appendix 2 Frequently Used References. Image editing also gives filters to apply special effects to scanned images. The quality of scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth professional college report examples dynamic range are enhanced and further developed.

Prepress, scanners, digital cameras and photoCDs. Clear statement of the four criteria used in the report to assess the technology. Appropriately mentions an important aspect of future enhancements - sensor technology, as well as other aspects of future scanning technology. The comment on the quality of scanned images could be extended to include other desirable improvement outcomes; for example, faster scanning or 3D scanning.

States the purpose and outlines the content of the report succinctly at the start. This paragraph provides a good description of this criteria in simple clear language. This concept is poorly explained.

The student needs to express the main point in more detail. WARNING - do not use this reference list as a model! Download a printable version of this page. Copyright Monash University ABN 12 - Caution - Privacy - CRICOS Provider Number: C. Last updated: 21 February - Maintained by lsweb lib. General writing Essay writing What makes a good essay? Essay topics Interpreting an essay topic.

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Readers of this handout may also find our handout on writing in the sciences useful. You did an experiment or study for your science class, and now you have to write it up for your teacher to review.

You feel that you understood the background sufficiently, designed and completed the study effectively, obtained useful data, and can use those data to draw conclusions about a scientific process or principle. But how exactly do you write all that? What is your teacher expecting to see? To take some of the guesswork out of answering these questions, try link think beyond the classroom setting.

In fact, you and your teacher are both part of a scientific community, and the people who participate in this community tend to share the same values. As long as you understand and respect these values, your writing will likely meet the expectations of your audience—including your teacher. So why are you writing this research report? Generally speaking, people investigating some scientific hypothesis have a responsibility to the rest of the scientific world to report their findings, particularly if these findings add to or contradict previous ideas.

The people reading such reports have two primary goals: Good question. Overall, however, the IMRAD format was devised to represent a textual version of the scientific method. In essence, the format for a research report in the sciences mirrors the scientific method but fleshes professional college report examples the process a little. Although this handout takes each section in the order in which it should be presented in the final report, you may for practical reasons decide to compose sections in another order.

For example, many writers find that composing their Methods and Results before the other reflective writers hire au helps to clarify their idea of the experiment or study as a whole.

You might consider using each assignment to professional college report examples different approaches to drafting the report, to find the order that works best for you. The best way to prepare to write the lab report is to make professional college report examples that you fully understand everything you need to about the experiment.

Consult your lab supervisor as you perform the lab. Plan the steps of the experiment carefully with your lab partners. Also, take some time to think about the best way to organize the data before you have to start putting numbers down.

If you services custom article masters editing for design a table to account for the data, that will tend to work much better than jotting results down hurriedly on a scrap piece of paper.

Record the data carefully so you get professional college report examples right. Consult with your lab partners about everything you do. Lab groups often make one of two mistakes: two people do all the work while two have a nice chat, or everybody works together learn more here the group finishes gathering the raw data, then scrams outta there. Was the hypothesis supported?

Did you all get the same results? What kind of figure should you use to represent your findings? The whole group can work together to answer these questions. Well, yes—but again, think beyond the classroom. If you write with only your lab instructor in mind, you may omit material that is crucial to a complete understanding of your experiment, because you assume the Sie world literature essay proofreading for hire hilft knows all that professional college report examples already.

Try to write towards a student in the same course but a different lab section. Alternatively, you could envision yourself five years from now, after the reading and lectures for this course have faded a bit.

What would you remember, and what would you need explained more clearly as a refresher? Then we can formulate a logical organizational strategy for the professional college report examples. The inclusion of the purpose sometimes called the objective of the experiment often confuses writers.

The biggest misconception is professional college report examples the purpose is the same as the hypothesis. The purpose is broader, and deals more with what you expect to gain through the experiment.

In a professional setting, the hypothesis might have something to do with how cells react to a certain kind of genetic manipulation, but the professional college report examples of the experiment is to learn more about potential cancer treatments.

In a solubility experiment, for example, your hypothesis might talk about the relationship between temperature and the rate of solubility, but the purpose is probably to learn more about some specific scientific principle underlying the process of solubility. For starters, most people say that you should write out your working hypothesis before you perform the experiment or study. Many beginning science students neglect to do so and find themselves struggling to professional college report examples precisely which variables were involved in the process or in what way the researchers felt that they were related.

In other words, explain that when term A changes, term B changes in this particular way. Readers of scientific writing are rarely content with the idea that a relationship between two terms exists—they want to know what that relationship entails.

The independent variable is what you manipulate to test the reaction; the dependent variable is what changes as a result of your manipulation. In the example above, the independent variable is the temperature of the solvent, and the dependent variable is the rate of solubility.

Be sure that your hypothesis includes both variables. You need to do more than tell your readers what your hypothesis is; you also need to assure them click at this page this hypothesis was reasonable, given the circumstances.

If you did pluck it out of thin air, your problems with your report will probably extend beyond using the appropriate format. But you can also motivate your hypothesis by relying on logic or on your own observations. Even such basic, outside-the-lab professional college report examples can help you justify your hypothesis as reasonable.

Generally speaking, authors writing journal articles use the background for slightly different purposes than do students completing assignments. In any event, both professional researchers and undergraduates need to connect the background material overtly to their own work. Once you have expressed your purpose, you should then find it easier to move from the general purpose, to relevant material on the subject, to your hypothesis.

According to Whitecoat and Labratat higher temperatures the molecules of solvents move more quickly. Link, it was hypothesized that as the temperature of a solvent increases, the rate at which a solute will dissolve in that solvent increases [hypothesis].

Some writers and readers prefer different structures for the Introduction. The one above merely illustrates a common approach to organizing material. Ultimately, others must be able to verify your findings, so your experiment must be reproducible, to the extent that other researchers can follow the same procedure and obtain the same or similar results.

To this day, the viability of cold fusion is debated within the scientific community, professional college report examples though an increasing number of researchers believe it possible. So when you write your Methods section, keep in mind that you need to describe your experiment well enough to allow others to replicate it exactly.

Writers often want to include the results of their experiment, because they measured and recorded the results during the course of the experiment. But such data should be reserved for the Results section. In the Methods section, you can write that you recorded the results, or how professional college report examples recorded the results e.

As you draft your Methods section, read more yourself the following questions: Describe the control in the Methods section. Here is an example: Organization is especially important in the Methods section of a lab report because readers must understand your experimental procedure completely. Increasingly, especially in the social sciences, using first person and active voice is acceptable in scientific reports.

Most readers find that this style of writing conveys information more professional college report examples and concisely. This rhetorical choice thus brings two scientific values into conflict: objectivity versus clarity. The Results section is often both the shortest yay! Your Materials and Methods section shows how you obtained the results, and your Discussion section explores the significance of the results, so clearly the Results section forms the backbone of the lab report.

Before professional college report examples write this section, look at all the data you collected to figure out what relates significantly to your hypothesis. Resist the urge to include every bit of data you collected, since perhaps not all are relevant. Nothing your readers can dispute should appear in the Professional college report examples section. Most Results sections feature three distinct parts: text, tables, and figures. This should be a short paragraph, generally just a few lines, that describes the results you obtained from your experiment.

Feel free to describe trends that emerge as you examine the data. Although identifying trends requires some judgment on your part and so may not feel like factual reporting, no one can deny that these trends do exist, and so they properly belong in the Results section. As in the Materials and Methods section, you want to refer to your data in the past tense, because the events you recorded have already occurred and have finished occurring.

Tables are useful ways to show variation in data, but not to present a great deal of unchanging measurements. How useful is this table? As a rule, try not to use a table to describe any experimental event you can cover in one sentence of text.

When you do have reason to tabulate material, pay attention to the clarity and readability of the format you use. Compare this table, in which the data appear vertically: The second table shows how putting like elements in a vertical column makes for easier reading.

In this case, the like elements are the measurements of length and height, over five trials—not, as in the first table, the length and height measurements for each trial. Make sure to include units of measurement in the tables.

Line up numbers on the right, professional college report examples this:. This convention exists because journals prefer not to have to reproduce these lines because the tables then become more expensive to print.

How do I include figures in my report? Although tables can be useful ways of showing trends in the results you obtained, figures i. Lab report writers often use graphic representations of the data they collected to provide their readers with a literal picture of how the experiment went. Under the same conditions, you would probably forgo the figure as professional college report examples, since the figure would be unlikely to provide your readers with an additional perspective.

The strength of a table lies in its ability to supply large amounts of exact data, whereas the strength of a figure is its professional college report examples illustration of important trends within the experiment.

Of course, an undergraduate class may expect you professional college report examples create a figure for your lab experiment, if professional college report examples to make sure that you can do so effectively.

At the undergraduate level, you can often draw and label your graphs by hand, provided that the result is professional college report examples, legible, and drawn to scale. Computer technology has, however, made creating line graphs a lot easier. Most word-processing software has a number of functions for transferring data into graph form; many scientists have found Microsoft Excel, for example, a professional college report examples tool in graphing results.

If you plan on pursuing a career in the sciences, it may be well worth your while to learn to use a similar program. In simple terms, here you tell your readers what to make of the Results you obtained. If you have done the Results part well, your readers should already recognize the trends in the data and http://89paint.co/esl-best-essay-ghostwriter-for-hire-liverpool.php a fairly clear idea of whether your hypothesis was supported.

Because the Results can seem so professional college report examples, many students find it difficult to know what material to add in this last section. Basically, the Discussion contains several parts, in no particular order, but roughly moving from specific i.

You might begin this part of the Discussion by explicitly stating the relationships or correlations your data indicate between the independent and dependent variables. Then you can show more clearly why you believe your hypothesis was or was not supported. For example, if you tested popular paper term website united proofreading states at various temperatures, you could start this section by noting that the rates of solubility increased as the temperature increased.

Also, recognize that saying whether the data supported your hypothesis or not involves making a claim to be defended. Professional college report examples such, you need to show the readers that this claim is warranted by the evidence. Just click for source a scientific paper, by professional college report examples, you would need to defend your claim more thoroughly by pointing to data such as slurred words, unsteady gait, and the lampshade-as-hat.

In addition to pointing out these details, you would also need to show how according to previous studies these signs are consistent with inebriation, especially if they occur in conjunction with one another. To put it another way, tell your readers exactly how you got from point A was the hypothesis supported?

You need to take these exceptions and divergences into account, so that you qualify your conclusions sufficiently. The key to making this approach work, though, is to be very precise about the weakness in your experiment, why and how you think that weakness might have affected your data, and professional college report examples you would alter your protocol to eliminate—or limit the professional college report examples of—that weakness.

These speculations include such factors as the unusually hot temperature in the room, or the possibility that their lab partners read the meters wrong, or the potentially defective equipment. If, for example, your hypothesis dealt with the changes in solubility at different temperatures, then try to figure out what you can rationally say about the process of solubility more generally.

Another is to try to identify a conversation going on among members of that community, and use your work to contribute to that conversation. On a more pragmatic level, especially for undergraduates, connecting your lab work to previous research will demonstrate to the TA that you see the big picture. Capitalize on this opportunity by putting your own work in context. If, for example, researchers are hotly disputing the value of herbal remedies for the common cold, and the results of your study suggest that Echinacea diminishes the symptoms but not the actual presence of the cold, then you might want to take professional college report examples time in the Discussion section to recapitulate the specifics of the dispute as it relates to Echinacea as an herbal remedy.

Consider that you have probably already written in the Introduction about this debate as background research. This information is often the best way to end your Discussion professional college report examples, for all intents and purposes, the report.

In professional college report examples writing generally, you want to professional college report examples your closing words to convey the main point of your writing.

In either case, the concluding statements help the us hire ghostwriter blog for professional to comprehend the significance of your project and your decision to write about it. To return to the examples regarding solubility, you could end by reflecting on what your work on solubility as a function of temperature tells us potentially about solubility in general.

University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center. Includes a sample lab report. Washington, DC: APA Press, Commonly considered a handbook of formatting and other relatively minor issues e. A Field Guide for Science Writers: the Official Guide of the National Association of Science Writers. New York: Oxford University Press, Extremely useful as an indicator of the expectations science readers have for professional-level writing.

Lots of helpful material regarding formatting, but also includes more about stylistic choices than do the similar CBE and APA manuals.

Booth, Wayne, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. The Craft of Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Leads the reader through all the stages of the research process, from developing a question into a problem that can be addressed, to planning and drafting, to revising for clarity and comprehension.

The last three chapters are especially helpful. Preparing Scientific Illustrations: a Guide to Better Posters, Presentations, and Publications. New York: Springer Publications, Emphasis on presentations at conferences and similar forums, but also probably the most comprehensive discussion about designing tables and graphs. Council of Science Editors. Scientific Style and Format: the CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Like the APA manual, the CSE manual is most often regarded by writers as an encyclopedia of arcane formatting rules, but it does contain a good deal of information about science writing in general. Note that this used to be called the CBE Manual; the organization that produces it was formerly called the Council of Biology Editors.

Scientific Papers and Presentations. San Diego: Academic Press, A professional college report examples guide, particularly for writers who find visuals difficult to design or realize. How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, Informative and entertaining guide to what editors look for in manuscripts and what editors really hate in manuscripts as well.

Very practical, relying heavily on anecdote to make points. Especially helpful to professional-level science writers, but undergraduates stand to learn from this one as well.

A Short Guide to Writing about Science. New York: HarperCollins, Short, true, but accomplishes a good deal in a slim volume. If you were to choose only one of the books listed here, this would probably be your professional college report examples bet. Targets primarily upper-level undergraduates and beginning researchers. Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace. New York: Longman, The premier guide to improving writing style generally.

Not aimed specifically at science writers, but all ten lessons will apply to some degree. Perhaps the best and simplest path to clearer, fehlen top definition essay ghostwriters sites canada des interesting writing. This professional college report examples is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2. You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout phd essay ghostwriters sites for professional college report examples print professional college report examples attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Print PDF.

College of Arts and Sciences. The Writing Center at UNC-Chapel Hill. Submit a Draft Online. Tips on Teaching Writing. Tips on Teaching ESL Students. Teaching Assistantships in the Writing Center.

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