Popular dissertation proposal proofreading website united kingdom Popular dissertation proposal proofreading website united kingdom


Popular dissertation proposal proofreading website united kingdom PrivateWriting Essay Writers

This is not an example of the popular dissertation proposal proofreading website united kingdom written by our professional essay writers. Provision and development can change due to social, economic and political factors Spicker,p. State provision of welfare has a long history, in Britain for instance dating back to the Elizabethan Poor Laws and earlier. Welfare states started to develop when surveys of poverty by people such as Charles Booth showed the inadequacy of welfare provisions that could not deal with poverty particularly with increasing urbanisation and industrialisation Thane,p.

The worldwide depression from would lead countries to consider further welfare developments. There are various key theories that seek to explain the processes involved in welfare state popular dissertation proposal proofreading website united kingdom that will be explained below. The theories have evolved or being devised to explain the differences and similarities in welfare state development in different countries at the same time or in a single country over a period of time.

After the main theories have been discussed the one or ones that are most applicable for evaluating contemporary changes will be outlined. There are different ways of looking at the development of the welfare state and deciding how far it should extend, demands for changes can result from improved technology, shifting social or economic factors and demographic trends such as lower birth rates and people living longer.

Four key theories of welfare state development are based around liberalism, Marxism, Neo-liberalism and post structuralism and have all at some point been reflected in or used in the development of welfare states.

Developments in welfare states can popular dissertation proposal proofreading website united kingdom be reactive or proactive depending on the ideological aims and visions of governments or their ability to make social policy Spicker,p.

Liberalism tended to stress the role of the individual in providing for their own needs; the state should only intervene to help those that were incapable of finding work.

In Britain the liberals originally achieved their aims for welfare state development with the Poor Law Act that finally replaced the long lasting but no longer effective act of Liberalism stressed in its original form that all the state needs to do is give individuals the freedom to make their own choices, only helping the really destitute.

For them government only needs to uphold laws and property rights. The business of government of business was to allow businesses to operate freely R. However some liberals recognised the shortcomings of read more economics particularly during recessions and popular dissertation proposal proofreading website united kingdom. They also noted the failings of the Poor Law to tackle poverty even during periods of improving prosperity.

There emerged new and radical liberalism that called for increased welfare provision and the emergence of limited welfare states. The British Liberal governments of epitomized that approach by introducing state old age pensions and labour exchanges for the unemployed Comfort,p.

In contrast Germany had already had a well-developed welfare state provision by Curiously Bismarck who wanted http://89paint.co/case-study-ghostwriters-sites-au.php healthy well-educated population drew up this system M Donald Hancock et al,p.

Beveridge had plenty of experience in welfare policy having being in charge of the labour exchanges and lecturing on economics at Oxford University college writers online esl site essay the London School of Economics.

Keynes had been an economics adviser to the British government and inspired the New Deal programme in the USA Crystal,pp. Marxism was developed by Karl Marx in conjunction with Fredrich Engels and led to a second keynote theory of developing the welfare state. Of course Marx and Engels were not concerned with such issues as they wished to promote communism and work towards the working classes taking over economic and political power from the popular dissertation proposal proofreading website united kingdom classes.

A Marxist state would develop essay writers kingdom united phd service cheap welfare state to promote progress, communism and above all protect the workers and eliminate poverty.

The Marxist movement was not unified about how it would develop the welfare state or indeed gain power. Some Marxists such as the German Social Democrats preferred to use parliamentary democracy to achieve power and develop a welfare state.

The seminal Erfurt Programme of popular dissertation proposal proofreading website united kingdom for welfare provisions such as eight- hour working days, free healthcare, free education, minimum wages and equality for women. More radical Marxists such as Lenin and Trotsky advocated armed revolutions and were able to seize power himself. The Soviet Union itself developed a welfare state with free medical and education services and pensions with unemployment officially non-existent J.

In Imperial Germany, Bismarck set up the welfare state to undermine the socialists thus taming these wild beast of the political forest Hobsbawm,p. The Marxist-Leninist regimes of the Soviet Union and its Central and Eastern European satellites may have developed welfare states but they failed to produce the economic prosperity of the West and the many failures of their planned economies contributed to the fall of these regimes.

On the other hand their population were all more economically equal, they were poor but had free welfare provision and no political rights. The third main keynote theory for welfare state development is Neo-Liberalism most closely associated with the governments of Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan.

In Britain and other parts of Western Europe the combination of Keynesian economics and all embracing welfare provision that had helped to achieve postwar prosperity faltered in the late s and the s. Neo-Liberals believed that the combination of Keynesian economics and the welfare state were contributing to economic and political stagnation and were no longer viable. Following policies that became known as Thatcherism nationalised industries were privatised, subsidies to ailing private companies were stopped, and council houses were sold off.

These policies increased unemployment but eventually lowered inflation. Margaret Thatcher also limited trade union power and defeated the miners during the bitter strike of She brushed visit web page opposition to her policies as people accept there is no alternative Comfort,p.

The planned reduction in expenditure on the welfare state never materialised as higher unemployment pushed up benefit payments and more civil servants were needed to process those claims.

The Conservatives found that the National Health Service was politically sacred although they were able to introduce an internal market to aid efficiency.

Neo-liberalism is a return to the ideas of classic liberalism and views the state in the same negative light. Thesis cheap service proposal writing london Jackson accused Reagan of spending millions to beat our plowshares into swords, while leaving the disadvantaged begging for bread Carroll and Noble,p.

Best personal essay united kingdom found it easier to repudiate welfare and spurn the legacy of the New Deal than Thatcher found it to reverse the concept of provision from the cradle to the grave Hobsbawm,p. Post-structuralism emerged at a similar time to Neo-liberalism from the s.

Unlike Neo-liberalism it does not see liberalism in any guise or Marxism as adequate methods of understanding social and economic policy or as foundations for welfare state development. Marxism started to suffer a crisis from the s with its economic weaknesses greatly undermining its social and political foundations and bringing about the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe Agh,mba ghostwriters site for bibliography popular. Actual welfare state development is more often a mixture of more than one of these approaches.

Development is often based on pragmatic concerns as much as ideological ones. Political concerns particularly in liberal democracies can dictate welfare state development. Welfare measures that are electorally popular will often be implemented ahead of reforms that would make the system more effective popular dissertation proposal proofreading website united kingdom could be electorally damaging. Recent demographic changes and future trends certainly make welfare state development a vital issue for popular school cover letter present and the future.

Aging populations are a serious problem to how welfare states as already developed can be sustained. Generally those of the left of the political divide are more likely to prefer a greater development of the welfare state than those on the right who either maintain the status quo or cut it back if they can Spicker,p.

Based on the facts of aging more info with fewer people of working age paying taxes to fund welfare and benefits expenditure the latest trends in welfare state development tend to stress targeting expenditure to the most needy, providing value for money and preventing fraud.

In Britain New Labour has attempted to reform housing benefit and introduced performance standards to improve administration esl article for proofreading website phd local authorities. The government has had some success in countering fraud DWP,pp.

Sincetwo million more people of working age have gained employment reducing benefits expenditure by 5 billion a year, with the purpose of tackling the scourge of unemployment, inactivity and poverty DWP,p. For Western Europe the keynote theory that best described welfare state development up to the s would have been variations of liberalism with elements of socialism, for instance British new liberalism and the West German social market economy.

From the s neo-liberalism and Poststructuralism had a greater influence on the development of welfare states reflected most popular dissertation proposal proofreading website united kingdom in the neo-liberal tenets of Thatcherism in Britain. Neo-liberalism did reduce the size of public sectors in the countries that tried it but its deflationary effects led to higher unemployment and higher benefits expenditure. Neo-liberalism would be the best theory to describe the welfare state developments in Central and Eastern Europe after the end of communism.

Over all neo- liberalism is now probably the best keynote theory with the proviso that previous liberal and socialist as opposed to Marxist legacies are still apparent and politically untouchable. The reforms needed to amend, extend and continue welfare state development would best be considered under a Post-structuralist framework. Welfare states especially in the West face the growing challenge of providing for the extra needs of aging populations whilst the working age populations needed to pay for them dwindles.

Possible solutions could include raising retirement ages, persuading more people to provide for their own health care and pensions, encouraging people to have more children or encourage immigration from developing nations. P; Guy Peters, B; Safran, W. Company Registration No: VAT Registration No: Registered Data Popular dissertation proposal proofreading website united kingdom No: Z Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ.

TRUSTED BY STUDENTS SINCE Examples of Our Work. Topics with Titles Service. Examples of Our Essays. Stages of a PhD. Viper Terms and Conditions. Help Centre - FAQs. Social Policy Essays - Welfare State Development. Published: 23rd March, Last Edited: 23rd March, This essay has been submitted by a student.

Modern welfare state development is generally considered to lead to social security or benefits payments, social housing provision, health provision, social work and educational services.

Department for Work and Pensions - Departmental Report The Stationery Office, London. Department for Work and Pensions - Five Year Strategy -Opportunity and Security throughout life The Stationery Office, London. Donald Hancock, M; Conradt, D. Eatwell, R and Wright, A. Fully referenced, delivered on time, Essay Writing Service.

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