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In medieval manuscript s used in Church services and private devotion, a calendar section often preceded the textidentifying the feast days celebrated in the region. The most important were highlighted in red ink "red letter days" with other colors used to indicate degrees of importance.

The Julian calendar days with an extra day every four years was adopted from the Romans, but the Roman civil year beginning on January 1 was replaced by the Christian year in the 7th century. For an early printed calendar, see this example published in Venice in by Erhard Ratdolt Special CollectionsGlasgow University Library, Euing BD7-f.

Also refers to a chronological list of the document s included in an archival collection roll s, charter s, state papersetc. In the Islamic world, the proscription on religious imagery facilitated the development of Arabic calligraphy into a sophisticated art form. For online exhibition of Islamic calligraphy See Traces of the Calligraphercourtesy of the Asia Societyand Arabic Calligraphy Islamic Arts and Architecture Organization.

To learn more about calligraphy, see the entry in Wikipedia. In most collection s, a call number is composed of a classification number followed by additional notation to make the call number unique. This gives a classified arrangement to the library shelves that facilitates browsing. Generally, the class number is followed by an author mark to distinguish the work from others of the same class, followed by a work mark to distinguish the title from other works of the same class by the same authorand sometimes other information such as publication datevolume numbercopy numberand location symbol.

In Library of Congress Classification LCCused by most academic and research libraries in the United States, class notation begins with letter s of the English alphabet example: PN In Dewey Decimal Classification DDCused by most public and school libraries in the United States, class notation consists of arabic numeral s example: According to Robert Leggat A History of Photography, the calotype was not as popular as the daguerreotype due to patent restrictions and because the materials used were not as sensitive to light, requiring longer exposure s.

The two-step process took longer and the prints tended to fade. However, the process had significant advantages over the daguerreotype: 1 retouching could be done on either the negative or the print, 2 multiple prints could be made from a single negative, 3 paper prints were easier to examine and handle, and 4 the tones of a calotype were warmer.

Introduction of the collodion process and albumen print s in made the calotype obsolete, but the negative-positive process invented by Talbot has become the standard in modern photography. Click here to see other examples, courtesy of the Getty Museum. Click here to learn more about the calotype process Special CollectionsGlasgow University Library. In cartoon s, the line of text printed at the foot of the illustrationindicating the humor in the image see this example. The New Yorker magazine sponsors a weekly cartoon caption contest.

Also refers to a heading printed at the beginning of a chapter or other section of a book and to the headline at the beginning of the text of a periodical article or section of it. Martin write me world affairs curriculum vitae Japan: also : hanging caption. In microform s, a title or brief line of description in a type size large enough to enable the viewer to identify the photograph ed document without the aid of magnification.

In film s and filmstrip s, a line of text at the bottom of a frame or sequence of frames identifying or explaining the content. A continuously moving line of text at the bottom of television screen is called a crawl. See also : closed caption. The future of Carnegie libraries in the United States is uncertain. In the article "Carnegie Legacy: Preserving the Past by Looking into the Future" published in American Libraries Aprilarchitect Joseph C.

Rizzo reports that of the 1, Carnegie libraries constructed in the U. See also : Carnegie Medal. The award is announced at the midwinter meeting of the American Library Association by the Carnegie Award Selection Committee of the Association for Library Services to Children. Click here to learn more. Its letterform s are wide and curved, with ligature s sparingly used, each letter written separately. Carolingian style systematized punctuation and the division of text formerly written in scriptio continuo into words and sentences.

The practice of beginning each sentence with a single majuscule and completing it in minuscules was also standardized. Interest in Carolingian minuscule revived in the late 14th century in Italy, resulting in a humanistic script that became the basis for the lowercase letter s of many modern typeface s. Synonymous with Caroline minuscule. Also refers to an animated film created by photograph ing a series of drawings done as individual cel s, then editing the images into a sequence of frame s which, when viewed in rapid succession, create the illusion of history me creative u.s.

writing and write government popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states. To locate commercially produced cartoons, try The Big Cartoon Database. In art, a full-size preparatory drawing done on paper as a working draft for transfer sometimes in sections to the surface of a fresco, tapestry, stained glass window, or other large work.

In a more general sense, a decorative element in popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states form of a scroll, often used in the Islamic decorative arts click here to see cartouches used in the border of an 18th-century Turkish illuminated manuscriptcourtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

In Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions, a group of character s representing a divine or royal name or titleenclosed in an oval or oblong frame, often identifying a figure in a painting or sculpture. Click here to see examples carved in stone at Luxor, here to see examples in painted relief, and here to see a cartouche included in a jeweled pectoral Metropolitan Museum of Art.

In computing, a removable electronic storage medium diskmemory chipmagnetic tapeetc. Some computer printer s are made with slots into which font cartridges can be inserted to load a variety of font s. By extension, any self-contained removable module used in computing equipment, for example, the toner and ink cartridges commonly used to resupply laser and ink-jet printers.

Also, a removable electro-acoustic transducer, usually encased in hard plastic, designed to hold the needle in the arm of a phonograph record player. Click here to learn how a phonograph cartridge works, popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states of MicroPhone Solutions. Also refers to a container used source a typesetter to hold movable type.

The words uppercase and lowercase are derived from the relative positions of the compartments used to store the two kinds of type see this example. Also, a small, flat container hinged to open like a book, in which one or two daguerreotype s, ambrotype s, or tintype s were preserved, allowing them to be carried conveniently and safely.

Early examples were made of wood covered in leather or cloth, often decorated on the outside, with fabric lining and metal hinges and fasteners. Thermo-plastic began to replace leather in Click here to see one open Metropolitan Museum of Art. Similar cases were used to protect portrait miniature s during the medieval period. Also refers to a small, flat plastic container, hinged to open like a book, in which media items, such as VHS tapes and DVD s, are stored see this example.

A clear plastic case for storing CD s and CD-ROM s is called a jewel case example. Locking case s are available to protect media against theft. The preparation of entries for a library catalog called cataloging is performed by a librarian known as a cataloger. British spelling is catalogue.

Compare with bibliography and index. Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states also : classified catalogdictionary catalogdivided catalogand online catalog. Sales catalogs are often heavily illustrated see these examplescourtesy of the University of Delaware Library. Click here to search the CGPwhich is updated daily. In medieval manuscript s and early printed book s, a word or part of a word appearing in the lower margin of the last page of a quire that duplicates the first word on the first page of the following quire, enabling the binder to assemble the gathering s in correct sequence.

In hand-copied books, the sequence of catchwords is unique to a specific copy. Click here to see an examples in a 14th-century English psalter British LibraryHarleyColumbia Universityand here to see a decorated example in a late 14th-century Book of Hours Syracuse University Library.

Click here to see catchwords in a printed book, courtesy of the University of Pittsburgh Libraries. Also refers to a word or phrase repeated so frequently that it has become a motto or slogan. Click here to view page s from The Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ printed by Caxton c.

Click here to compare two Caxton edition s of The Canterbury Talescourtesy of the British Library. See also : Caxton Club and Gutenberg, Johann. Each disc has the capacity to store megabyte s of data, the equivalent oftopage s of text or approximately 1, book s of average length. CD-ROMs can be used to store sound track s, still or moving image s, and computer file s, as well as text. In librariesCD-ROMs are used primarily as a storage medium for bibliographic database s and full-text resources, mostly dictionariesencyclopedia s, and other reference work s.

See also : CD-ROM driveCD-ROM networkand CD-ROM tower. Also, a family of plastics that includes cellulose nitratecellulose acetateand cellulose triacetateused as the base in photograph ic and motion picture film s. The ALA Code of Ethics places an ethical responsibility on its members to resist censorship of library materials and programs in any form and to support librarian s and other staff who put their careers at risk by defending library policies against censorship.

The Electronic Privacy Information Center EPIC maintains a Web page on Internet Censorship. See also : banned book ; book burning ; challenge ; clandestine publication ; Comstock, Anthony ; expurgated ; filtering ; Index Librorum Prohibitorum ; intellectual freedom ; Motion Picture Production Code ; precensorship ; and samizdat.

In the United States, the national census, mandated by the federal Constitution, is conducted every ten years by the U. Census Bureauwhich reports the detailed results in statistical form by state. Census data is used to apportion seats in Congress and to gather demographic and economic information about citizens and other residents, later compile d and analyzed in federal statistical publication s.

Summary table s are published in the Statistical Abstract of the United Statesprepared annual ly since and available in the reference section popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states most libraries in the United States.

See also : census tractDomesday Bookand TIGER files. In magazine s, a gatefold ed spread, usually a portrait such as a pin-up or nude, inserted in the middle of the publication--a special feature developed by Hugh Hefner, publisher of Playboy Magazine. In saddle-stitched magazines, the center fold has no blank space, allowing the illustration to be removed for display as a poster. Also, the process by which a state agencyor a nongovernmental agency or organization authorized by a state government, evaluates the qualifications of an individual, organization, or institution to perform a specific service or function for the purpose of granting a credential.

However, National Board Certification of library media specialist s is encouraged by the American Association of School Librarians AASL. See also : approved program. In communicationsa band of frequencies assigned by the Federal Communications Commission FCC to a radio or television transmitting station for its exclusive use.

In a more general sense, a one-way communications link. Also refers to the blank space dividing column s of text written or printed on a page. Also, article source local division custom problem solving writing site canada an organization.

Over popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states independent state and regional library association s are closely affiliated with the American Library Association. Each has a more info budget and dues structure, elects its own officers, and sponsors an cheap academic writer sites conference.

The ALA also has student chapters in over 25 states. Within the ALA, chapter interests are represented by the Chapter Relations Committee and the Chapter Relations Office.

In data processinga sequence of eight binary digits one byte representing a letter of the alphabetnumeral, punctuation mark, or other symbol.

See also : character set. Also, a fiction al person in a novelplayshort storyor other literary work. A character study is a work in which the primary theme is the inner development of a person or group of persons example : Hamlet. In Library of Congress subject headings"Characters" is a standard subdivision used in personal name heading s for writers of fictionparticularly playwright s example : Shakespeare, William, Characters--Falstaff.

Well-known characters may be given a separate heading, followed websites popular for ghostwriter college a parenthetical qualifieras in Jeeves Fictitious character. See also : stock character. Also click to see more to a fee or payment required of a library patronusually for the use of nontraditional services, such as rental collection s and certain methods of document delivery.

Discussions at past Conference s have focused on the escalating cost of materials particularly serial s subscription sthe effects of electronic publishing on libraries and vendors, licensing and access to digital content, the impact of journal aggregator s on institutional subscriptions, e-journal archivingthe need for reliable and consistent usage statistics for digital resources, and the impact of market forces on scholarly communication.

Attendance has grown to overwith popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states accounting for about one-half of the attendees.

Most of the librarians represent academic librariesmany at large research institutions. Click here to learn more about the Charleston Conference.

Also, an opaque sheet on which data is displayed in graph ic or tabular form, for example, a calendar. See also : flip chart. In Maythe U. Supreme Court upheld the application of community standards to the Internet but remanded the case to the lower court for examination of unresolved free speech issues.

On March 6,the federal appeals court in Philadelphia click to see more ruled COPA unconstitutional on just click for source that the law deters adult s from accessing materials protected under the First Amendment.

On August 11,on the heels of the U. In June in a decision the U. Supreme Court affirmed the decision of the Philadelphia court, blocking enforcement of COPAbut stopped short of declaring the law unconstitutional and, for a second time, sent Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union back for a new trial, which began on October link, On March 22,U.

District Judge Lowell A. On July 22,the 3rd U. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the decision, and on January 21,the U. Supreme Court refused to hear appeals of the lower court decision, effectively killing COPA.

See also : Communications Decency Act. In Maya three-judge panel in federal district court unanimously ruled CIPA unconstitutional, agreeing that current Internet filtering software blocks speech protected under the First Amendment. In Junethe U. Department of Justice appealed the decision to the U. The Federal Communications Commission FCC announced that public libraries and schools wishing to retain federal technology funding must certify by July 1, that filtering software is installed and in use on all computers providing Internet access, including those used only by staff.

CIPA provides no funds for libraries to implement filtering. Some libraries and library system s have decided to forgo federal library funds in order to maintain local control over Internet access.

In a statement of objectives regarding CIPA issued on July 25, by ALA president Carla Hayden and the ALA executive board, the ALA pledged to identify technological options that minimize the burden on libraries, continue to develop click to see more promote viable alternatives to filtering, and gather and disseminate authoritative information and research on the effects of CIPA and filtering on libraries and library users, including evaluative information for use in selecting filtering software.

See also : Child Online Protection Act and Communications Decency Act. Synonymous with juvenile literature. The Royal Library of Denmark provides images from the manuscript Chronique Martinienne "Martian Chronicle"a French translation of a Latin world chronicle written at the end of the 13th century, and from the Book of Chronicles published in Click at this page known as The Nuremberg Chroniclethe latter work was edited by the humanist historiographer Hartmann Schedel.

In modern usagea list of events described and recorded in the order in which they occurred. The treatment is fuller and more connected than annals. In serials controlthe date of publication associated with the volume enumeration.

In a more general sense, secret writing or code intended to be understood deciphered only by those who know the key to it. In data processingan encrypted character that can only be decrypted with a key.

In publishingthe number of copies distributed of each issue of a serial publicationincluding complimentary copiessingle-copy retail sales, and copies sent to paid subscriber s.

Compare with total circulation. Citation style manual s are available in the reference section of most academic libraries or try the Yahoo! See also : APA styleelectronic styleand MLA style. Citation popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states originated in when Eugene GarfieldColumbia University graduate in chemistry and library science and founder of the fledgling Institute for Scientific Click the following article ISIreceived an NIH grant to produce the experimental Genetics Citation Indexwhich evolved into the reference serial Science Citation Index.

See also : bibliographic coupling and citation chasing. Also refers to the process used by a depository library in the Federal Depository Library Program FDLP to inform the U. Government Printing Office GPO that an item number on its list of selections was included on a popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states listbut the document was not received. Claims must be filed by the depository within 60 days of receipt of the shipping list, except when a raincheck was issued.

Claims can be filed online using the Web Claim form available on the FDLP Desktop. Click here to view a 16th-century leather binding with two plain brass fore-edge clasps, tastefully aligned with bands of blind tooling across the back cover Special CollectionsGlasgow University Library, Ah-y. On popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states bindings, clasps of precious metal were sometimes engraved with a name, datemottoor religious phrase, as on this example of a lateth-century panel -stamped popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states Koninklijke Bibliotheek.

Ornate clasps might feature cameo portraitssometimes added later Wellesley College Library. Today, clasps are used mainly on personal diaries and album s, sometimes with lock and key. In Dewey Decimal Classificationa subdivision of any degree of specificityfor example, the class "Library and information sciences" represented by the notation The 10 highest-level divisions of DDC number ed in the first-digit position are its main class es.

In human resources management, a group of position s within an organization for which the qualification s, duties, responsibilities, evaluation procedures, etc. In library employment, positions are typically classified as follows: library directorlibrarianlibrary technician, library technical assistant, and clerical assistant.

Also refers to a reference tool catalogindexdictionaryencyclopediaetc. In literaturean overused plot element use best ghostwriter service aus character type whose lack of originality detracts from the overall quality of the work. Also refers to a computer connected to a network such as the Internetequipped with software enabling the user to access resources available on another computer, called a serverconnected to the same network.

See also : client-server. Cloth was also used as a covering material in luxury hand-binding of the 16th and 17th centuries. See also : textile binding.

Archy was a fiction al cockroach who could type only by jumping with all his weight on the typewriter keys one-at-a-time. The oldest vellum codex known to exist is the Codex Sinaiticusa Greek Old and New Testament of the mid-4th century written in scriptio continuo in four column s per pagecurrently in the British Libraryalthough some scholars consider the Codex Vaticanus in the Vatican Library to be older.

Click top college proofreading site sf to see a selection of contemporary model s of early codex binding s, courtesy of the University of Iowa Libraries. The term also refers to the form of the modern book, consisting of individual leaves of writing material bound together along one edge and enclosed in a protective cover.

See also : pugillaria. A standard model for CCD in the print environment divides the information sphere into "core" and "specialized" materials. A research library has a basic responsibility to maintain a core collection on-site to serve immediate need s, especially those of undergraduates. At the same time, a commitment is made to develop collections of specialized materials in selected areas, not only to meet local priorities but also to serve consortial needs.

Specialized collections are supported by the collections of consortial partners built through distributed responsibility for complementary field s. Assignment website delivery is essential to the success of complementary collections. Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states with cooperative collection development.

Also, to check a book for completeness before bindingand to make sure the signature s are gathered in correct sequence, a professional essay websites ca is made easier by collating marks printed along the back fold or in the tail popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states to make misplaced section s easier to spot.

The marks are removed in trimming or concealed when the lining is applied to the binding edge. Also, to merge two or more ordered sets of document s, recordspage s, or data into a single desired sequence.

High-end photocopier s usually have collating this web page. In bindinga list of the signature s of a book, indicating the number of leaves in each. Also, the process of checking the physical make-up of a book for correct sequence and completeness before binding, particularly the presence of all illustration s, plate s, and map s not printed with the text.

In analytical bibliographythe comparison of two text s of the same work to determine which is the first edition or the definitive text. In library cataloginga synonym for the physical description area of a bibliographic recordnow disused. Also refers to the merger of two ordered sets of document s, recordspage s, or data into a single desired sequence. Also refers to a number of document s book s, report s, recordsetc. See also : library collection. Large libraries and library system s may use an approval plan or blanket order plan to develop their collections.

In small- and medium-sized libraries, collection development responsibilities are normally shared by all the librarian s, based on their interests and subject specialization s, usually under the overall guidance of a written collection development policy. Compare with collection management. See also : Collection Development and Evaluation SectionCollection Management and Development Sectionand collaborative collection development.

In classificationthe arrangement of the subdivisions of a hierarchical classification system in a manner that places class es and subclass es of equal rank together and shows the degree to which they are logically removed from the main class. Also refers to a conference in the form of a seminar, with several speakers participating in a discussion that is conversational in style and tone. Synonymous in this sense with colloquium.

National political columnist s are often syndicate d. For an example of a self-published e-mail column, see Holt Uncensored. In a more general sense, a series of remarks or observations made by someone with authority to speak popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states be heard on the subject, for example, a journalist writing a column on a political or social issue.

In librariesCDs are usually shelved separately, often in specially designed display cases. Some libraries provide listening equipment on the premises. In AACR2the term "sound disc" is used in the physical description area of the bibliographic record representing a compact disc, with " digital " given as type of recording. See also : MP3 CD and optical disk.

In medieval manuscript illuminationone of two or more sections of a miniature or historiated initial divided to display multiple images or scenes. Click here to see examples in an early 15th-century Italian manuscript British LibraryBurney Also refers to the activity of preparing learn more here new or revised map or chart popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states existing map dataaerial photograph s, field survey s, and other pertinent sources.

See also : compiled map. In printingthe process of preparing copyassembling typeand making up type and display matter into page s. In letterpressthese tasks are accomplished by the compositor. In medieval manuscript illuminationthe overall design of a page or miniatureespecially the ensemble formed by its parts.

Click here to page through examples in a 15th-century Book of Hours illuminated by the Boucicaut Master Getty MuseumMS Also, a very read article form of binding in which three or more physical volume s are bound together, with each volume sharing at least one of its board s with another and opening in the opposite direction from the volume s to which it is attached.

Click here to see a 17th-century Hebrew Bible in four volumes bound concertina-style, courtesy of the Royal Library of Denmark. Also refers to a popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states meeting of the representatives constituting the legislative or governing authority of a corporate bodyusually for the purpose of discussing and acting on matters of importance to the organization.

Residing within the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the CONSER database is maintained by program members, which include the national libraries of the United States and Canada and their respective ISSN centers; selected academicU. CONSER is a component of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging PCC.

Click here to connect to the CONSER homepage. In indexingthe degree of similarity between the index terms subject heading s or descriptor s assigned to the same item or document by different indexers or at different times by the same indexer. In librariesa method of uniform collection assessment developed in North America in to facilitate resource sharing. The system uses codes to survey popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states, levels of difficulty, linguistic and geographical coverage, etc.

Inthe Research Libraries Group initiated the RLG Conspectus Online to provide electronic access to data on the collection s of research libraries in the United States. The system was subsequently adopted by the Association of Research Libraries for its North American Collection Inventory Project NCIP. It has also been adapted by Library and Archives Canada and is used in the UK, Australia, and some European countries. In the s, after the Western Library Network WLN developed PC software that enabled libraries to develop and maintain local collection assessment database s, use of RLG Conspectus Online dwindled, and the file s were removed from the Research Libraries Information Network RLIN database in Click here to view the collecting levels of the RLG Conspectus, used in Library of Congress policy statements to define the extent of its collections.

In response to evidence that viewing television violence can have negative popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states on the psychological development of children and adolescents, Congress included a provision for "Parental Choice in Television Programming" in the Telecommunications Act of TCAgiving parents greater control over content available on their home television receivers.

TCA required manufacturers to include a V-chip in new TV sets and recommended that the television industry develop a voluntary rating system readable by the V-chip. In Januaryentertainment industry executives began implementing "TV Parental Guidelines," a controversial four-level rating system based on the MPAA movie ratings.

Many child advocacy organizations preferred ratings modeled on the premium channel system, designed to indicate the amount of sex, violence, and vulgar language by such labels as: SC : Strong Sexual Content; MV : Mild Violence; AL : Adult Language; etc. In Julythe industry and public advocacy groups agreed on a compromise that adds content indicators to age-based guidelines.

See also : British Board of Film Classification custom writing hire london Motion Picture Production Code. Also refers to all the items physically contained in a boxbindercase, or holder designed to keep loose materials together, for example, der popular university essay writing for hire usa FrisГrekzem pamphlet file or portfolio.

Also, a work issue d as a supplement to one previously published or a part issued in continuance of a monograph ic set or series. Libraries normally place such materials on continuation order. See also : map continuation. On tinted maps, contours are usually printed in brown ink. Click here to see contours on a USGS topographic map of Mount Shasta in California and here to see a bathymetric example, courtesy of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Compare with form line. See popular descriptive essay on trump : contour intervalcontour mapand isobath.

This web page utility of controlled vocabulary in the online environment has been challenged, but a study by Tina Gross and Arlene G. Synonymous with controlled terms. Compare with free-text search. Also refers to an agreement or compact between two or more groups, especially nations, less formal than a treatyusually reached at an assembly of delegates, for example, the Berne Convention on international copyright.

Also used in reference to the assembly at which such an agreement is reached, and synonymously with conference. In computing, a how-to manual that often includes boilerplate code, templates, style sheets, and other software tools, assembled to help implement a particular standard or technology. Coptic binding spread to northwestern Europe in the early Christian period, the 7th-century Stonyhurst Gospel being the earliest-known English example.

Click here to see a contemporary example, courtesy of the Wellesley College Library. Also refers to a single specimen of a manuscript or printed document. Libraries sometimes purchase heavily used item s in multiple copies. Copy number is indicated in the catalog record and at the end of the call numberbeginning with the second copy. In limited edition s, the total number of copies printed and the number of each copy are recorded in the certificate of issueusually on the verso of the leaf preceding the title page.

In publishingmatter that is to be typeset in preparation for printing or incorporated as text into a hypertext document. In data processingto reproduce data stored in memory from one filelocation, or storage medium to another without alteration and without erasing it from memory. Such rights may be transferred or sold to others and do not necessarily pass with ownership of the work itself. Copyright protects a work in the specific form in which it is created, not the idea, theme, or concept expressed in the best dissertation chapter ghostwriter website united kingdom, which other writers are free to interpret in a different way.

A work never copyrighted or no longer protected by copyright is said to be in the public domain. See also : copyright compliancecopyright depositorycopyright piracydigital rightsinfringementintellectual propertyinternational copyrightand Public Lending Right. See also : abandonment popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states copyrightCopyright Clearance CenterDigital Millennium Copyright Actand International Copyright Information Centre.

In public librariesa periodical so essential to meeting the information need s of a wide range of users that it is included in most general serials collections example : Scientific American. Also refers to metal corners attached to the binding of a book to protect it from wear.

Click here to see a 16th-century blind tooled leather binding with decorative metal cornerpieces popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states a matching centerpiece and clasp s Special CollectionsGhostwriters site canada University Library, BD7-e. Metal cornerpieces are sometimes jeweled, as in this 19th-century example British Library.

In modern usagea temporary guard made of metal, plastic, or some other hard material, attached to the corners of a book to protect against damage in shipping. Compare with boss and shoe. Also http://89paint.co/professional-critical-analysis-essay-proofreading-service-ca.php to an ornament or flourish printed or drawn by hand at the corner of a border around a portion of printed or handwritten text.

Also, an automatic feature built into the HTML code of a Web pageor into the software running some other type of online resource, that allows the number of visits more info uses to be counted for statistical purposes. In typographythe space enclosed by the strokes of a unit of typefor example, the center of the "p" or the space between the vertical strokes of the "h.

Also, a law library located in a courthouse, maintained for the use of judges, courthouse staff, attorneys and their clients, and members of the public, for example, the library of the South Carolina Supreme Court or that of the U.

Also refers to the amount of attention time, space, number writer usa hire dissertation chapter cheap for commentators, etc. In computing, a slang term for the unanticipated breakdown of a system, usually caused by hardware failure, a serious software defect, or a network error.

See also : dump. In the performing arts, initial critical response may determine the success or demise of a production, although a work that fails on first exposure may receive wider acclaim if revived. In publishingworks rejected by critics and reader s when first published sometimes become classic s with the passage of time.

Unlike review s, which appear during the months immediately following first publicationserious criticism of an enduring literary work may continue indefinitely. Also, a work in which character s from two discrete fictional contexts are brought together, for example, Shadows Over Baker Street: New Tales of Terror! When published without the permission of the original creator ssuch works may give rise to legal disputes over popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states infringement.

Also, a footnote in a documentinforming the reader that other relevant information can popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states found in another part of the document.

Because newspaper s and periodical s are issue d at regular intervals, they provide more current information than book s, which must be update d in supplement s and revised edition s. Some online catalog s and bibliographic database s allow the user to limit search results by publication date to retrieve only recently published materials.

The opposite of noncurrent and outdated. See also popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states current awareness servicecurrent bibliographycurrent contentsand current kommt top dissertation abstract ghostwriters website london Cellulite. In archivesnewly acquired records usually remain current for a designated period of time, after which their status is changed to semicurrentand they are moved to a temporary holding area to await final disposition.

In computing, a multiplatter hard drive in which the concentric magnetic tracks on each disk platter are the same distance from the hub. Arranged in a stack, the platters are of popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states size popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states vary in number, with high-end hard drives normally used in server s having as many as a dozen. Double-sided, the platters rotate at constant speed, driven by a single spindle motor see this schematic of a multiplatter hard drive.

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The Praeger Singer-Songwriter Collection. The Psychology of Everyday Life. The Story of a Drug. Voices of an Era. Early albumen print s are in sepia and later examples are in silver tones and rich blacks, printed on gelatin paper s introduced in the s. Easy to mass produce, cabinet cards appeared in the mids, replacing the wallet-sized carte-de-visiteand were sold up to about when the tinted picture postcard became popular.

SchoonmakerU. Synonymous with cabinet photograph. See also : imperial card photograph. A modem designed to operate over cable television lines, instead of telephone lines, providing faster data transmission because the coaxial cable used by cable TV companies has higher bandwidth.

With millions of homes in the United States already wired for cable TV, Internet access via cable modem is growing. Television service transmitted directly to subscriber s via cable connection, rather than broadcast over the air to all who own receivers. Originally designed to extend service to homes in rural areas, cable TV reached nearly half the homes in the United States by the early s.

Today, cable systems deliver hundreds of channel s, many providing specialized program ming, to approximately 60 million U. Some cable systems allow subscribers to make telephone calls and receive new programming technologies, such as pay-per-view.

Click here to learn more about cable television, courtesy of HowStuffWorks. A small section of dedicated high-speed memory built into a microcomputer to improve system performance by providing temporary storage for block s of data and instructions that would otherwise be retrieved from slower memory. As a general rule, the larger the cache, the greater the enhancement of performance and speed. Click here to learn more about caching, courtesy of HowStuffWorks.

See : C anadian A ssociation of C ollege and U niversity L ibraries. See : computer-aided design. From the Latin capitastrummeaning " register of the poll tax. A cadastral map may also show culture roads, buildings, popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states. Click here to see an 18th-century example, courtesy of the Royal Library of Denmark.

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Cadels were an exaggerated form of gothic littera bastardaused in medieval manuscript s from the 13th to the 15th century. Click here to see an elaborate "H" at the beginning of a calendar leaf in The Hours of Henry VII Leaves of Gold and here to see an illuminated example in a 15th-century Flemish manuscript Getty MuseumMS Click here to see a large rubricated cadel in a 16th-century Scottish this web page British LibraryArundel See : C hinese A merican L ibrarians A ssociation.

The pen made from a dried reed, used from about B. After about B. Donated by the family of Frederic G. The ALSC maintains the Caldecott Medal Home Page. Click here to view a list of Caldecott Medal winners. Compare with Newbery Medal. His first published drawing s appeared in a Manchester newspaper. After various journal s accepted his workCaldecott went to London in where he studied at the Slade School with Sir Edward Poynter. He died at the age of 40 in Florida after undertaking an ill-fated trip to America for his health.

Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states examples can be seen at the Web site maintained by the Randolph Caldecott Society UK. See : C ommunications A ssistance for L aw E nforcement A ct. A tabular register of the days in a year, usually arranged by month and der popular cover letter ghostwriter website toronto passiert each month by week, sometimes indicating the date s of important events such as national and religious holidays.

To learn about the history of calendars, see Calendars through the Ages. Also, an almanac listing days of the year significant to a particular culture or political entity. The calendar of forthcoming library events, provided in Library and Book Trade Almanacincludes state, regional, national, and international association meetings.

See also : calendar year and perpetual calendar. The one-year period beginning on Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states 1 and ending on December 31 following the civil year of the ancient Romans. Most journal subscription s popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states for a single calendar year, although some publisher s offer a financial incentive to subscribe or renew for multiple year s.

Compare with publication year. See also : subscription period. The part of a papermaking machine consisting of one or more smooth rollers designed to smooth paper after drying, reducing its permeability to moisture by closing the pores in its surface see this example. In calenderingthe degree of smoothness depends on the amount of pressure applied by the rollers.

Supercalendering produces the glossiest finish that can be applied to paper without coating it. A leather binding made from the skin of a calf usually no more than a few weeks old. Its soft, smooth, unblemished surface made it the preferred material in England for hand-binding trade edition s but not on the Continent, where printed book s were usually sold in paper cover s to be custom-bound at the discretion of the purchaser.

Calfskin bindings can be dyed any color and decorated in various ways marbledmottledspeckled, stained, treeetc. Although it is sturdy and provides a good base popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states tooling and blockingthe smooth surface of calfskin makes it susceptible to scratching and scuffing. Click here to see link undecorated 17th-century calf binding Princeton University Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states and here to see a 17th-century example tooled in gold St.

See also : kipskinlaw calfooze leatherroughrussiaand Spanish calf. See : letter picture. The art of elegantly beautiful handwriting.

A highly skilled penman is a calligrapher. The term also refers to handwritten character s, words, page s, and entire document s that meet the aesthetic requirements of highly skilled penmanship. In Far Eastern cultures, calligraphy is done with a pointed brush held in a vertical position. In Western and Islamic cultures, it is done with a reed, quillor nib pen held at an angle to the writing surface. During the Middle Ages, certain scribe s were known for the beauty of their script.

Some became writing master s and created model book s like this one created popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states Georg Bocskay, Croatian-born court secretary to the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I Getty MuseumMS To learn more about calligraphy, see the entry in Wikipedia.

A unique code printed popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states a label affixed to the outside of an item in a library collectionusually to the lower spine of a book or videocassette see these examplesalso printed or handwritten on a label inside the item. Assigned by the catalogerthe call number is also displayed in the bibliographic record that represents the item in the library catalogto identify the specific copy of the work and give its relative location on the shelf.

Generally, the class number is followed by an author mark to distinguish the work from others of the same class, followed by a work mark to distinguish the title from other works of the same class by the same authorand sometimes other information such as publication datevolume numbercopy numberand location symbol.

A brief form that the user must fill out to request an item from the closed stacks of a library or archivesor from some other nonpublic storage area, usually retrieved by hand by a staff member called a pagealthough automated and semi-automated retrieval systems are used in some large libraries. Synonymous with request slip. An early photograph ic process patent ed in by William Henry Fox Talbot, who found that by treating high-quality writing paper with light-sensitive chemicals and exposing it to light in a camera, a latent image resulted from which print s could be developed on similarly treated paper.

Strictly speaking, the term "calotype" refers only to the paper negative from which positive prints were made on salted paper. Because the negative was embedded in the paper, rather than on a surface coating, the texture of the fibers and any imperfections in the paper tended to make the prints appear popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states or sketchy see this example.

A distinctive 18th-century style of English bookbinding used mainly in university libraries and on theological work s in which the board s are covered in two shade s of brown leatheran effect achieved by masking and sprinkling calfskin so as to leave a stained rectangular panel in the center, surrounded by a plain rectangular frame bounded in turn by a stained outer frame. According Roberts and Etherington in Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books: A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminologyvolume s bound in this style were ghostwriting hire sf assignment for popular on raised cords and had Dutch marbled endpaper s and red stained edge s.

The spinepieced with red russia leather label s, had double blind lines on each side of the raised bandsand the cover s were decorated with a double fillet close to the edges and on each side of the panel, with a narrow flower roll worked very close to the panel lines. Tooling was done in blind popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states gold. The style was so popular with binder s in Cambridge that it came to be regarded as their specialty, although it was practiced elsewhere.

Click here and here to see examples, courtesy of the Royal Library of Denmark. A self-contained electronic device, introduced by Sony inthat combines the capabilities of a video camera and videocassette recorder VCR in popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states same portable unit. Newer camcorders record video images and sound in digital format and are considerably smaller in size and lower in price than earlier analog models.

Click here to learn more about the history of the camcorder, courtesy of Wikipedia. A typeface used for special effect in which the normal method of printing is reversed, the character s appearing in white against a solid or shaded backgroundinstead of in black against a light background. Compare with outline letter. A style of bookbinding popular in Italy from about in which the centers of the board s forming the cover are stamped in relief in imitation of a coin or medallion.

The decoration may be left blind or embellished with inksilver, or gold leaf. Click here to see an example done in blind Southern Methodist University. Synonymous with plaquette binding. In bindinga metal tool of oval shape engraved with a design, usually in the form of a pictureused from the 11th to 16th century in blind tooling to make an impression resembling cameo jewelry on the side of a leather-bound book.

See also popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states cameo binding. A film animation technique in which the images are drawn or scratched directly on the film stockrather than photograph ed frame -by-frame see this example. Synonymous with drawn-on-film animation. Latin for "lit chamber. Also refers to painting s and other work s made from such drawings. Click here to learn more about the camera lucida, courtesy of About.

Compare with camera obscura work. In reprographyan image popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states an original source documentmade with a camera on high-quality film silver popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states emulsion on a polyester baseusually retained by the producer for the purpose of making second- generation archival print master s "printing dupes" from which third-generation distribution or service copies are made.

Synonymous with first generation and master negative. Latin for "darkened chamber. Click here to learn more about the camera obscura. Compare with camera lucida work. Processed or unprocessed best critical analysis essay proofreading websites online ic film exposed http://89paint.co/professional-business-plan-writer-website-toronto.php the camera, as opposed to a subsequent copy.

Synonymous with original negative. In printingcopy typed using word processing softwareor produced by some other means, that has been fully edited and is ready to be photograph ed for plate making without having to be typeset. Synonymous with camera copy. In medieval manuscript production, a single phase of work on a manuscript made in more than one phase over a period to time.

The text was usually copied first, followed by the underdrawing of decorated initial letter s and miniature s, then by gilding and paintingand finally binding. The life story of a political candidate, issue d at the time of his or her campaign for election to public office. The genre began in the United States in popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states the publication of The Life of Andrew Jackson by John Reid and John Henry Easton.

See : film can. Available onlineon CD-ROMand via FTPCanadiana is a comprehensive list of title s published in Canada, including book s, periodical s, sound recording s, microform s, music score s, pamphlet s, government documentstheseseducational kit s, videorecording s, and electronic document s.

It also provides information about forthcoming titles to facilitate advance order ing. The printed edition of Canadiana was discontinued after the December issue and the microfiche edition after December Click here to connect to the Canadiana homepage.

Canadian Association for School Libraries CASL. A division of the Canadian Library Association CLA formed in by the merger of the Association for Teacher-Librarianship in Canada ATLC and the Canadian School Librarianship Association CSLACASL is devoted to providing a national voice for school custom essay editor website toronto in Canada, promoting excellence in school libraries, and facilitating the professional growth of school librarian s.

CASL sponsors conference s in conjunction with CLA and with provincial and territorial library association s. Click here to connect to the Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states homepage. Canadian Association of College and University Libraries CACUL.

A division of the Canadian Library AssociationCACUL seeks to develop and promote high standards of librarianship in institutions of postsecondary education. The organization gives award s, publishes CACUL Divisional Notesand sponsors the CACUL List-Serv. Click here to connect popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states the CACUL homepage.

Canadian Association of Public Libraries CAPL. The division of the Canadian Library Association CLA charged with enhancing public library service throughout Canada, CAPL holds an annual meeting in conjunction with the annual CLA conference and publishes the CAPL Newsletter. Click here to connect to the CAPL homepage.

Canadian Association of Special Libraries and Information Services CASLIS. The division of the Canadian Library Association CLA charged with enhancing special library service throughout Canada, CASLIS sponsors an annual meeting in conjunction with the annual CLA conference and an annual award for outstanding special librarianship in Canada.

Click here to connect to the CASLIS homepage. Canadian Bookbinders and Book Artists Guild CBBAG. Founded inPopular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states is a nonprofit association of craftspeople working in the hand book artsincluding papermaker s, paper decorators, bookbinder s, book restorer s, and paper conservators, both amateur and professional.

CBBAG seeks to provide access to education in the book arts, promotes greater awareness of the book arts, and advocates high standards of excellence in the book arts through exhibition s, workshop s, lectures and program meetings, and publication s. CBBAG sponsors an annual book arts fair and publishes the CBBAG Newsletter. Click here to connect to the CBBAG homepage. Canadian Booksellers Association CBA. A nonprofit national trade association devoted to promoting the current and future interests of the bookselling industry in Canada and to meeting the needs of Canadian bookseller s.

Its members include over 1, bookstore s and over publisher s across Canada. CBA publishes the trade journal Canadian Bookseller in nine issue s per year.

Click here to connect to the CBA homepage. A nonprofit organization founded in to promote, support, and encourage the reading, writing, and illustration of Canadian book s for children and teens, CCBC provides resources for teachers, librarian s, students and parents, author s, illustrator s, storyteller s, publisher s, and bookseller s.

Click here to connect to the CCBC homepage. Canadian Intellectual Property Office CIPO. The special operating agency SOA associated with Industry Canada that is responsible for administering the greater part of the intellectual property system in Canada. CIPO is responsible for administering patent s, trademark s, copyright s, and the popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states protections for industrial designs and integrated circuit topographies.

Click here to connect to popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states CIPO homepage. See also : U. Copyright ServiceU.

Copyright Officeand World Intellectual Property Office. Canadian Library Association CLA. Founded inCLA has a membership of librarian s and other persons involved or interested in librarieslibrarianshipand information science in Canada. An affiliate of the American Library AssociationCLA sponsors a national conference held at a different location in Canada each year. CLA is also co-publisher with the ALA and the Library Association UK of Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules.

Click here to connect to the CLA homepage. Canadian Library Trustees Association CLTA. The division of the Canadian Library Association CLA charged with providing a national voice for public library trustee s in Canada, CLTA holds an annual meeting in conjunction with the annual CLA conference. Click here to connect to the homepage. Founded inCPC is a trade association representing the interests of Canadian publisher s of English- language book s and media for schools, colleges and universities, professional and reference markets, http://89paint.co/cheap-mba-essay-writer-website-au.php the retail and library sectors.

Located in Toronto, CPC also represents the Canadian publishing industry internationally and maintains a liaison with the Association of American Publishers.

Click here to connect to the CPC homepage. See popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states : Association of Canadian Publishers. Task Force on Archival Description CUSTARD. An international group of archivist s working to reconcile the three existing descriptive content standard s used by link Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts ; the Click to see more Rules for Archival Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states RAD ; and the General International Standard Archival Description ISAD[G] --into a single descriptive standard.

The product is expected to be the foundation of a truly international content standard. A new leaf or leaves printed to replace part of a book or other publication when changes are required in the text or illustration s, usually before binding but after the work has gone to pressmore common in the 17th and 18th centuries than today because as printing developed, the frequency of printing errors declined. Http://89paint.co/best-argumentative-essay-ghostwriter-for-hire-united-states.php of a regular order, continuation orderor periodical subscription terminated for some reason by the library or the seller.

A nonserial item may be reorder ed if it is still available. Library holdings of a canceled serial title are note d in the catalog record in a closed entry. Serial cancellation s have increased in recent years, particularly in academic librariesdue to the rising cost of print subscriptions and the availability of full-text in bibliographic database s. See also : noncancellable. In the context of medieval manuscript s, a popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states "x" used to indicate a correction by crossing out one or more letter s; a form of deletion.

See also : expunction. The period of time a library allows a publisherjobberor other vendor for popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states of a book or item before the order is automatically canceledusually 90 to days. The item may subsequently be reordered from the same vendor or a different source. A person whose application for employment has been accepted and who is being seriously considered for a position.

Also refers to a person taking an examination, running for an elected office, considered for an award or degree, or destined for a particular purpose or fate. See also : short list. A photograph in which spontaneity and naturalness, rather than technique, are over-riding considerations.

The subject is generally unposed and the shot unplanned, taken unobtrusively with an unhidden camera by a person immersed in an event that is often private, involving people in close relation to each other or engaged in unrehearsed activity. Henri-Cartier Bresson is considered a master of candid photography. Some candid photographs have become iconic documents see this example.

A performance that is prerecorded or filmed not livederived from the expression "in the can" in reference to the metal containers used for storing film and recording tape. In literaturethe accepted list of work s by a given author considered by scholars to be authenticfor example, the 37 play s of William Shakespeare. Also refers to the approved list of works included in the Bible.

In the most general sense, a criterion or standard of judgment applied for the purpose of evaluation. See also : canonical order. The arrangement of heading s, parts, divisions, or items in an order blog post writer website liverpool by law or tradition, for example, the sequence of the book s popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states the Bible.

A system of index ing the canon ical Gospels devised in the 4th century by Eusebius of Caesarea, in which the concordance of passages number ed in the text is displayed in four parallel column s, usually placed at the beginning of a Gospel bookBibleor New Testament. Popular during the early Middle Ages, canon tables were usually given architectural treatment in manuscript decoration.

Some designs include the symbol s of the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Click here to page through colorful examples in a 12th-century German Gospel book Getty MuseumMS Ludwig II A major subdivision of a long narrative or epic poem serving the same function as a popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states in a novel.

Cantos are traditionally number ed in roman numeral s. See : c hief a cademic o fficer. The precursor of modern perfect binding. InWilliam Hancock was granted a patent for a binding method in which single leavesproduced by trimming away the back fold s of the section s, were attached directly to the cover without the use of thread by applying to the binding edge a layer of rubber solution made from the latex of various tropical plants.

This form of adhesive binding did not wear well--spines cracked and page s fell out. Also called gutta percha and rubberback.

A fiction al work novelstorymotion pictureetc. The operation is usually undertaken by two buddies or a motley gang, who together possess the diverse skills and specializations required for the enterprise, although their interpersonal relations may be less than cordial.

Uncertainty of success creates suspense. Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states budget ing, an allocation made on a one-time basis, usually for the construction of new facilitiesthe renovation or expansion existing facilitiesor a major upgrade of automation equipment or systemsas opposed to the operating budget allocated annual ly or biennial ly to meet the ongoing expenses incurred in running a library or library system.

The acquisition of a long-term asset, such as a new or renovated facilityinitial book stockor new equipmentfurnishings, or vehicle sfunded on a one-time basis from a budget for capital expenditure s, as distinct from the ongoing purchase of library materialspayment popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states salaries and wagesroutine repair and replacement of existing equipment and furnishings, and regular maintenance of facilities, funded from the operating budget.

The writing or printing of a letterword, or words in uppercase rather than lowercase. Also refers to the conventions in a language with respect to words written or printed with certain letters in uppercase.

For example, in English the first letter of the first word of a paragraph, and of each of the parts of a proper nameis normally capitalized. The general rules governing capitalization in library catalog entries can be found in Appendix A of AACR A large letter of popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states roman alphabet ABCetc.

The name is derived from the lapidary Roman letterform s incised with a chisel at the top capital of architectural columns and on other stone popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states. Also, any letter written or printed in a form larger popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states usually different from that of the corresponding small letter.

See also : capitalizationcap linerustic capitalsmall capitaland square capital. See : C anadian A ssociation of P ublic L ibraries. In typographypopular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states imaginary horizontal line connecting the tops of the uppercase letter s of a type fontoften, but not necessarily, the same as the ascender line.

Compare with mean line. See also : base line. See : capital letter. A box of cylindrical shape used in libraries of antiquity for storing scroll s in an upright position see this example.

See also : scrinium. From the Latin word for "capture" or "seizure. Synonymous in this sense with cut line or legend. See also : overleaf. The New Yorker magazine sponsors a weekly cartoon caption contest.

See also : hanging caption. See also : closed caption. A title printed at the beginning of a chaptersectionor other major division of a bookor at the beginning of the first page of the textwhich, in the absence of a title pageis sometimes used as the title of the whole in creating the bibliographic description.

The cataloger popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states adds Caption title: as a note in the bibliographic record to popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states its source. In a musical scorethe title that appears immediately above the opening bars may be used as the caption title. Synonymous with head title.

Compare with drop-down title. An account of the experiences of a person captured and held against his or her will, usually by an enemy or by members of a society or culture foreign to the captive. Accounts by men and women of European descent, captured by Native Americans, were popular in the United States and Europe from the colonial period until the close of the frontier in the late 19th century example : A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs.

Mary Rowlandson by herself. Narrative s based on journal s written in captivity are generally less fiction alized than accounts written from memory after the event. See : removed archives. See : c omputer- a ided r etrieval. A copy of a document made at the same time as the original by the use of thin paper coated on one side with a mixture of dark waxy pigment initially carbon easily transferred to a second blank sheet under the pressure of pen or typewriter.

Multiple copies can be made by alternating popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states of carbon paper with regular paper, but succeeding copies become fainter because each additional layer absorbs some of the pressure. The technique can be messy if the pigment is easily smudged.

Click here to see a carbon copy of an address with holograph revision s given by Winston Churchill popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states the Virginia General Assembly incourtesy of the Library of Congress.

According to Richard Pearce-Moses in A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminologycarbon paper was invented in England by Ralph Wedgwood in the early s and became available in the United States by the s, but was not widely adopted until the introduction of the typewriter because it did not work well with quill pen s. The use of carbon paper has been superseded by photocopying. An ink made from fine particles of carbon, such as soot or lampblackmixed with a binding medium of oil, gum, or aqueous glue see this example.

Unlike the iron gall ink used in the early medieval period, which here with age and can be so acidic that it corrodes paper and parchmentthe carbon ink used link manuscript s of the late middle ages and in early printed book s is highly stable and has no destructive effect on paper or parchment.

However, it does not bond with the writing surface and is easily affected by water, which can present problems in restoration.

The result of a photograph ic process patent ed by Joseph Wilson Swann in and popular until aboutin which a thin sheet of paper coated with a layer of light-sensitive gelatin containing a permanent pigment is exposed to ultraviolet light under a negative. The resulting image is transferred under pressure to a second sheet of gelatin-coated popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states, then washed in water to set the gelatin, producing a permanent print with a raised surface where the image is darkest.

The most commonly used pigments are carbon black and sepiabut a wide range of tint s can be used. Because carbon prints contain no silver, popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states are highly resistant to fading, making them especially suitable for book illustration and commercial edition s popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states photographic prints. A collagraph print made by a process invented in the 20th century in which the printing plate is coated with a layer of carborundum, an abrasive powder of silicon carbide, mixed with resin, varnish, glue, or some other adhesive that hardens on the surface.

The plate can then be worked to create an image in the same way as a article source see this just click for sourcecourtesy of Aberystwyth University.

A small, flat, rectangular piece of thin paperboard or stiff paperspecifically designed to convey a message or other information. When printedcards may include graphic design. The category includes such ephemera as advertising cards, business card s, trade card s, collecting cards, comic cards, dance cards, greeting cards, membership cards, playing cards, postcard s, sports cards, and visiting card s.

See also : index card and catalog card. A list of the holdings of a libraryprintedtyped, or handwritten on catalog card s, each representing a single bibliographic item in the collection. Catalog cards are normally filed in a single alphabetical sequence dictionary catalogor in separate sections by authortitleand subject divided catalogin the long narrow drawers of a specially designed filing cabinet, usually constructed of wood see this example. Most large- and medium-sized libraries in the United States have converted their card catalogs to machine-readable format.

Also spelled card catalogue. Compare with online catalog. A photograph ic printoften a portraitmounted on a standard-sized piece of thin cardboard, popular during the second half of the 19th century. Common sizes according to the California Historical Society :. Imperial - 7 x 10 inches introduced s. Compare with cased photograph. A deliberately distorted picture of a person, or a critical or facetious imitation of a performance or literary style, achieved by grossly exaggerating certain features or mannerisms peculiar to the object of satire or ridicule.

The Lilly Library at Indiana University provides America in Caricature,an online exhibition of popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states cartoon s.

Performing Arts Caricatures at the Library of Congress. See also : caricature publication and lampoon. A magazine or newspaper designed to imitate another publication or type of publication with openly satirical intent. A library facility constructed wholly or in part with grant funds provided by the American steel magnate and philanthropist Andrew Carnegiewho in his later years devoted his considerable wealth to the promotion of libraries and world peace. Between andover 2, Carnegie libraries were built around the world, the majority in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada.

The libraries of many small towns in the United States still occupy facilities built with Carnegie funds. The buildings are typically monumental in appearance--to see examples, try a keywords search on the term "carnegie library" in Google Images.

Click here to learn more about Carnegie libraries in Wikipedia and here to see images popular term paper writers sites uk Carnegie libraries. See also : Carnegie Medal. The prize is named after the American steel magnate and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie who devoted the last years of his life to the advancement of libraries and world peace.

Click here to view past Carnegie Medal winners. Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states with Greenaway Medal. See also : CLA Book of the Year for Children and Newbery Medal. Click here to learn more. From the Old French carolea circular dance. A festive songgenerally religious but not necessarily associated with church worship. Today, the form is represented almost exclusively by the Christmas carola song of joy and praise once sung by groups of amateurs in streets and in homes, especially on Christmas eve see this illustrationbut now heard mainly as muzak piped into retail businesses.

See : Carolingian minuscule. The first Latin script to introduce small letter s, Carolingian minuscule may have evolved from Luxeuil minusculea script developed at the monastery in Corbie in France.

It was adopted in the late 8th century by Alcuin of YorkAbbot of St. Also influenced by English half uncial s, the script Alcuin learned in his youth at the cathedral school in York, Carolingian minuscule quickly became the dominant book hand in Europe, where it was used through the 11th century and adopted in England following the Norman Conquest, replacing Insular and Anglo-Saxon scripts. Synonymous with Caroline minuscule. A detachable, circular slotted container, usually made of plastic, in which dozens of slide s can be queued for sequential viewing on a specially designed link projector.

Although carousels are bulky, they can also be used to store slides when not in use. To see examples, try a keywords search popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states the phrase "slide carousel" in Google Images. A type of tunnel book that opens in a circle to reveal, in three dimensions, several scenes in the story click here and here to see examples. A page in a medieval manuscript or early printed book that bears little or no text but is covered with elaborate decoration, sometimes with the Christian cross incorporated into the overall design.

The term is derived from its resemblance to hand-knotted carpets imported from the East. Examples can be seen here in the Book of Kells and here in the Lindisfarne Gospels hire ghostwriter article for best phd for, an illuminated masterpiece produced in Northumbria at the end of the 7th century, currently in the custody of the British Library.

Originally, a small stall or pew in a medieval cloister containing a desk for popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states, writing, argumentative writer services gb semiprivate study. In modern librariesa small room or alcove in the stacks designed for individual study click here and here to see examples.

Also refers to a free-standing desk or two desks face-to-face with low partitions at back and sides to provide some degree of privacy, with a shelf across the back facing the reader. Newer study carrels have built-in illumination and may be wired to provide network access for patron s using laptop s.

See : physical carrier. A form of tracing paperprobably made from kid parchmentthat may have been used in medieval book production to transfer designs from a finished exemplar to a manuscript in process Christopher de Hamel, The British Library Guide to Manuscript IlluminationUniversity of Toronto Press, French for visiting card.

The fashion of exchanging cartes-de-visite like calling cards and collecting them in album s spread throughout the world in the second half of the 19th century.

Portraits of celebrity sitters were particularly prized see this one of Abraham Lincoln taken in Cartes-de-visite can be dated by thickness early cards were thincorner shape square or roundedimage size small at firstborder style, and studio props and background.

By the early 20th century, the format had been superseded by the larger cabinet card s. Here is a selection of portrait cards of 19th-century actors and actresses from the Digital Collections of the University of Washington Libraries. Click here to learn more about the history of the carte-de-visite, courtesy of The American Museum of Photography.

Also spelled carte de visite. See also : visiting card. Also, the branch of bibliography pertaining to cartographic materials and mapping. For an online example, see Cartobibliography of Maps of the Isle of Man. The Libraries of Memorial University of Newfoundland provide the searchable Newfoundland and Labrador Maps Bibliography.

The Sir George Fordham Award for Cartobibliography is given every three years by the Royal Geographical Society for distinguished contributions to the field. A simplified map on http://89paint.co/cheap-masters-assignment-advice.php the size, outline, or location of geographic feature s is altered or exaggerated popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states illustrate a concept or a set of quantitative data for which the base is not necessarily true to scale.

An area proportional to APT map is a cartogram on which surface extent area is relative to the amount of map data for a feature e. Click here to see a world map based on estimated number of Internet users in the year from An Atlas of Cyberspaces and here to see maps of the United States based on the number of votes cast in the presidential election of Also refers to a small diagram included on the face of a map for the display of statistical data.

See also : schematic map. Any systematic representation of part or all of the surface of the earth or another celestial body real or imaginary on any scale. The category includes two- and three-dimensional map s and plan s; nauticalaeronauticaland celestial chart s; atlas es; globe s and planetaria; block diagram s, section s, and profile s; view s; remote sensing image s including aerial photograph s with cartographic purpose ; cartogram s; etc. Most cartographic materials are visual representations, but http://89paint.co/popular-article-review-proofreading-service-for-mba.php data set s are a notable exception.

In the bibliographic record representing a cartographic itemthe characteristic s of the material are described in the material specific details area MSD. See also : Anglo-American Cataloguing Committee for Cartographic Materialscartobibliographyand map library.

Cartographic Users Advisory Council CUAC. Committed to promoting the development and use of cartographic and spatial dataCUAC meets with representatives of various Put custom business plan writers sites for phd der. CUAC is composed of 12 representatives, two each from popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states Map and Geospatial Information Round Table MAGIRT and the Government Documents Round Table GODORT of the American Library Association ALAthe Geography and Map Section of the Special Libraries Association SLAthe Geoscience Information Society GSISthe Western Association of Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states Libraries WAMLand the North American Cartographic Information Society NACIS.

The art and science of making map s, chart s, and other cartographic materials. Broadly speaking, the term includes all the steps required to produce a map planning, aerial photograph y, field survey s, photogrammetry popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states, editing, color separation, and printingbut mapmakers often apply popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states term only to map-finishing operations.

Click here to learn about the process of making a topographic mapcourtesy of the U. Automated cartography is the production of maps and charts with the aid of digital technology, not to be confused with geographic information systems GIS. A person who makes or produces maps is a cartographer. Pieces of papyrus glued and tightly pressed together to form rigid sheet s, used as board s in early bookbinding see Coptic binding.

The same material was used in check this out Egypt for making mummy cases see this example. A symbol ic or representational drawing in one or more panel s intended to caricature a person or institution or to satirizewith wit and imagination, an action, event, or situation of current learn more here interest.

Usually published in a newspaper or magazinecartoons may be caption ed or contain monologue or dialogue in balloon s. Political cartoon s usually appear on or near the editorial page of a newspaper. Successful cartoonists are often syndicate d. See also the Cartoon Library and Museum at Ohio State University and the Center for Cartoon Studies in Vermont.

A searchable database of New Yorker cartoons is available at Cartoonbank. See also : comic booklampoonand manga. To locate commercially produced cartoons, try The Big Cartoon Database. In learn more here, a full-size preparatory drawing done on paper as a working draft for transfer sometimes in sections to the surface of a fresco, tapestry, stained glass window, or other large work.

A frame or paneloften in the form of a scrolldrawn or printed on a map or chartusually as an insetenclosing the title or subject of the workname of cartographerscaleand other descriptive information legend s.

On older maps, the cartouche often includes decorative elements, ranging from simple ornamentation to elaborate embellishment. Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states presence of a coat of arms signified land ownership. Click here to see an example on a 17th-century map of Pennsylvania Library of Congress.

Click here to see a cartouche in the form of a medallionand here and here to see draped examples University of Wisconsin, Green Bay. Some decorative cartouches are very elaborate University of Southern Maine. To see other examples, try a keywords search on Puerperale popular rhetorical analysis essay ghostwriting websites sehen term s "cartouche and map" in Google Images.

Also found on engraving popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states and older bookbinding s. In popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states more general sense, a decorative element in the form of a scroll, often used in the Islamic decorative arts click here to see cartouches used in the border of an 18th-century Turkish illuminated manuscriptcourtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Click here to see examples carved in stone at Luxor, here to see examples in painted relief, and here to see a cartouche included in a jeweled pectoral Metropolitan Museum of Art. A completely enclosed physical housing, usually made of hard plastic or metal, designed to store and facilitate access to a roll of film or tape, usually wound on a single corefor example, a light-tight, factory-loaded roll of photograph ic film designed to be placed in and removed from a camera in full daylight without risk of accidental exposure.

A cartridge is distinct from a container in being integral to, rather than separable from, the item. Cartridges may be constructed with the recording medium in a continuous popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states. Some libraries use cartridge microfilm in which the ends of a length of film are permanently attached to two take-up reel s for playback and rewind ing. By extension, any self-contained removable module used in computing equipment, for example, the toner and ink cartridges commonly link to resupply laser and ink-jet printers.

Click here to learn how a phonograph cartridge works, courtesy of MicroPhone Solutions. The room or place where the official papers or records of a medieval monastery, landowner, or corporation were kept. Also refers to the register in which they were listed, synonymous in the latter sense with chartulary. Click here to explore the 15th-century Aldgate Cartulary Special CollectionsGlasgow University Library, MS Hunter U. A feature added to HTML code that allows Web site developers to automatically apply the same layout to multiple document s.

The appearance of design elements logo s, headers, footers, font s, link s, margins, etc. By governing style externally, CSS enables the site developer to give the page s of a Web site a uniform look and alter style of presentation as desired without having to rewrite source code.

For more information professional bibliography writers websites liverpool CSS Frequently Asked Questionsprovided by the HTML Writers Guild. In machine bindinga cover made completely before it is attached to the body of a bookconsisting of two board s and a paper inlay covered in popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states cloth or some other protective material see this diagram.

The edition binder submits a specimen case to the publisher for approval showing the size, boards, covering, letteringand squares. The process of attaching the case to the popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states block by pasting down the endpaper s is called casing-in see this result.

See also : case binding and recased. The words uppercase and lowercase are derived from the relative positions of the compartments used to store the two kinds of type see this example. Similar cases were used to protect portrait miniature s during the medieval period.

Locking case s are available to protect media against theft. A form of mechanized bookbinding in which a hard covercalled this web page caseconsisting of two board s and popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states inlay covered in clothleatheror paperis assembled separately from the book block and attached to it after forwarding by gluing the hinge s, sewing supportsand paste-down s to the boards in a process called casing-in or hanging-in.

The spine of the case is not adhered to the binding edge of the section s in case binding. When the method was first introduced in popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states, plain cloth was used to cover the boards, but by the s a variety of finishes had been developed and embossing was often added.

Click here to see all the parts of a typical case-bound book labeled. See also : recased. A book containing records or descriptions of actual cases that have occurred in a professional discipline law, medicine, best blog writing for phd, sociology, social work, counseling, etc.

Legal casebooks are typically plainly see more see this example. Compare with case study. See : case binding. A photographic image mounted in a shallow, hinged box, usually made of wood covered in tooled leather see this examplepaperor cloth, or of metal or an early molded composite see union caseoften with a metal clasp.

Common in the midth century, case mounting was used to popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states daguerreotype s exampleambrotype s exampletintype s, and porcelain photographs. Some cases are oval example or octagonal in shape examplebut most are square or rectangular. Gilding and fine fabric linings were often used to create a luxurious effect example. Photograph s made by later processes may be mounted in cases that once held images of an earlier type.

Cased photographs are often in need of repair when acquired by a library click here to see the conservation process. The Bancroft Library at UC Berkeley and the California State Library host a Web site on their joint Cased Photographs Project.

Compare with card-mounted photograph. In archivesa folder or other file unit containing material related to a specific project, task, action, event, person, place, or other subjector a collection of such folders or units, also known as a project file or transaction file.

An adhesive made from milk protein, used in bookbinding and in manufacturing coated paper s, which is almost acid-free. Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states computer system or software program in which uppercase letters ABC On the InternetWeb addresses URL s are case-sensitive, but e-mail address es and filename s usually are not.

In the social and medical sciences, analysis of the behavior of one individual in a population, or a single event in a series, based on close observation over a period of time, often to reveal principles underlying individual behavior or click in general.

A case study may be published as an article in a journalas an essay in a collectionor in book form. In bibliographic database s that permit the user to limit retrieval by type of publication, case studies may be one popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states the option s example : PsycINFO. Synonymous with case report. A blankbook used to record all money spent or received as payment, generally in a business in which it is necessary or desirable to know the amount of cash on hand at any given time, or in a partnership in which an accurate record of total assets must be maintained see this example.

Today, computer software is available for recording such transactions electronically. In librariesa petty cash book may be used to record monies received in payment of finesetc. Compare with account book. Payment popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states must be received at the time the goods are delivered. See : C anadian A ssociation for S chool L ibraries. See : C anadian A ssociation of S pecial L creative essay ghostwriting website uk and I nformation S ervices.

A flat, completely enclosed containerusually made of metal or hard plastic, designed to hold a popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states of film or magnetic tape wound on two core s past an opening through which the film popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states viewed or the tape is read. The most common varieties used in libraries are audiocassette s, videocassette s, and cassette microfilm.

The term is sometimes used interchangeably with cartridgebut some cartridges have only one hub. See also : compact cassette. A commercially released audiotape recording containing two tunes, a format first release d in large scale http://89paint.co/popular-resume-writers-sites-au.php Some cassette singles contain one song on each side, similar to 45 rpm phonograph record single s; others have the same two songs on both sides.

See : cassette single. Recorded music from a musicalmotion pictureor other theatrical production in which the vocals are sung by members of the performance cast. In an original cast albumthe vocals are sung by the cast of the initial production, usually a Broadway or London premiere.

To see examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. A list of the performers in a playoperaballet, or other theatrical performance, with their parts in the production, usually included in the printed program distributed to members of the audience as they are seated see this example. An artistic work in paper made by pouring wet pulpcolored or uncolored, into a mold and allowing it to dry.

Produced since the s, such works may be difficult to distinguish from embossed print s. Click here to see an example, courtesy of the Society of Scottish Artists. In most modern librariesthe card catalog has been converted to machine-readable bibliographic record s and is available online.

The purpose of a library catalog, as stated by Charles C. Cutter in Rules for a Dictionary Cataloglater modified by Bohdan S. Wynar in Introduction to Cataloging and Classification 8th ed. To enable a person to find any work, whether issue d in print or in nonprint formatwhen one of the following is known:. To show what the library has. By a given author. On a given and related subjects.

In a given kind of literature. To assist in the choice of a work. As to the bibliographic edition. As to its character literary or topic al. See also : classified catalogdictionary catalogdivided catalogand online catalog. Sales catalogs are often heavily illustrated see these examplescourtesy of the University of Delaware Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states. A record album owned by a recording company, which it has previously release d but is no longer promoting.

Billboard magazine defines a catalog album as one over eighteen months old, which has fallen below position on its Billboard list of highest selling music albums. In manual cataloging systems, a paper card used to make a handwritten, typed, or printed entry in a card catalogusually of standard size 7. Click here to see examples, courtesy of the Gustavus Adolphus College Library.

With the conversion of paper record s to machine-readable format and the use of online catalog s, catalog cards have fallen into disuse. British spelling is catalogue card.

See also : extension card. A detailed set of rules for preparing bibliographic record s to represent item s added to a library collectionestablished to maintain consistency within the catalog and between the catalogs of libraries using the same code. In the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, libraries use the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules developed jointly by the American Library AssociationLibrary Association UKand Canadian Library Association.

Synonymous with cataloging code. A librarian primarily responsible by: popular creative essay ghostwriting services au und preparing bibliographic record s to represent the item s acquired by a libraryincluding bibliographic descriptionsubject analysisand classification.

Also refers to the librarian responsible for supervising a cataloging department. British spelling is cataloguer. Synonymous with catalog librarian. The process of creating entries for a catalog. In librariesthis usually includes bibliographic descriptionsubject analysisassignment of classification notationand activities involved in physically popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states the item for the shelftasks usually performed under the supervision of a librarian trained as a cataloger.

British spelling is cataloguing. See also : cataloging agencyCataloging and Classification Sectioncataloging-in-publicationcentralized catalogingcooperative catalogingcopy catalogingdescriptive catalogingencoding leveland recataloging.

A library or other institution that provides authoritative cataloging data in the popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states of new bibliographic record s and modifications of existing records, for the use of other libraries. In the United States, the leading source of cataloging data is the Library of Congress.

In the MARC record, the identity of the cataloging agency is indicated by its OCLC symbol in the cataloging source field example : DLC for Library of Congress. Cataloging and Classification Section CCS.

The section of the Association for Library Collections and Technical Services ALCTS within the American Library Association ALA charged with promoting the improvement of cataloging and classification of library materials in all format s and in all types of institutions. Click here to connect to the CCS homepage.

Cataloging Cultural Objects CCO. See : cultural object. Cataloging Distribution Service CDS. An agency within the Library of Congress that develops and markets, on a cost-recovery basis, bibliographic products and services that provide access to its resources for libraries in the United States, the American public, and the international information community. To accomplish its goal s, the CDS employs librarian s, product developers, systems analysts, programmers, operators, marketers, shippers, customer service representatives, accountants, and production staff.

Click here to connect to the CDS homepage. A prepublication cataloging program in which participating publisher s complete a standardized data sheet and submit it with the front matter or entire text of a new book usually still in galleys to the Library of Congress for use in assigning an LCCN and preparing a bibliographic recordwhich is sent back to the http://89paint.co/best-research-proposal-ghostwriting-services-united-states.php within 10 days to be printed on the verso of the title page.

The Library of Congress distributes CIP records to large libraries, bibliographic utilitiesand book vendors on a weekly basis to facilitate book processing.

If incomplete, the initial record may be amended by the Library of Congress after the U. Copyright Office receives the deposit copy of the published work. The CIP Program began at the Library of Congress in and is used throughout the world. Click here to see an example of CIP in the book, and here to connect to the CIP homepage. British spelling is cataloguing-in-publication. See : encoding level. Field of the MARC record, reserved for the three- letter OCLC symbol representing the cataloging agency that created, transcribed, or modified the bibliographic record example : DLC for Library of Congress.

If English is not the language of the cataloging agency, the field may also contain information about the language popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states which the item is cataloged. The primary index to publication s of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the federal government of the United States, published by the U.

Government Printing Office GPO sinceand since under these former title s:. Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications MOCAT United States Government Publications Monthly Catalog Monthly Catalog, United States Public Documents Monthly Catalogue, United States Public Documents Catalogue of United States Public Documents March Catalogue of Publications Issued by the Government of the United States January-March Click here to search the CGPwhich is updated daily.

In the manual card catalogall the information given on a library catalog cardincluding a description of the itemthe main entryany added entries and subject heading s, note s, and the call number.

In the online catalogthe screen display that popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states most fully a specific edition of a workincluding element s of description and access point s taken from the complete machine-readable bibliographic recordas well as information about the holdings of the local library or library system copieslocationcall number, statusetc. British spelling is catalogue record. As a general rule, each entry in the list includes date of production, size, condition, provenancelocation, exhibition history, and other important information about the work.

To see other examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. A sequence of letter s usually three printed at the top of a page in a dictionarygazetteeror here work that duplicates the first few letters of the first or last word on the page. Those printed on the verso indicate the first letters of the first word on the page; those on the rectothe first letters of the last word on the page.

In some work s, the letters appear in two groups separated by a hyphenrepresenting the first and last words on the page. See : kettle stitch. See : catchword title. Compare in article source sense with catch letters. Click here to see catchwords in a printed book, courtesy of the University of Pittsburgh Libraries. A partial title composed of an easily remembered word or phrase likely to be used as a heading or keyword in a search of the popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states catalogsometimes the same as a subtitle or the alternative title.

Synonymous with catch title. Categories for the Description of Works of Art CDWA. A specification developed by the Art Information Task Force AITF defining metadata elements to be used in describing work s this web page art and architecture and surrogate s of such works example : digital image sfrom an art-historical perspective. Click here to learn more about CDWA.

A cloth or leather binding decorated with architectural motifs of the Gothic period blocked in goldinkor blindsometimes including a rose window, popular popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states France and England from about to when interest in Gothic art underwent a revival.

Catholic Library Association CLA. Established inCLA has a membership of librarian s, teachers, and bookseller s involved with Catholic libraries and the writing, publicationand distribution of Catholic literature. CLA publishes the quarterly Catholic Library World.

See : cable television. An interest group within a political faction or party, legislative body, or organization formed sometimes spontaneously to address an immediate need for action on a given issue or series of related issues, usually by formulating policy, supporting candidates for political office, drafting campaign strategy, lobbying, etc.

Compare with task force. See : semantic relation. An abbreviation of c onstant a ngular v elocitya disc recording technology in which the disc is spun at constant speed in playback regardless of whether the heads are reading the inside or the outside. Because the track s on the inside are shorter than those on the perimeter, the constant speed of rotation means that when the heads are reading the outside tracks, they traverse a much longer linear path than when the inside is read, so linear velocity does not remain constant.

The main advantage of CAV is that it allows special playback features such as freeze framestep frame, slow motionand reverse not possible in CLV constant linear velocity format ; however, CAV has significantly less data storage capacity than CLV.

The Club has as its primary objective the publication of book s of quality, in content and design. Its founders also established club rooms in which to meet and sponsor exhibition s, and a library of reference material about books.

The founders followed the lead of four other newly-formed book clubs: the Grolier Club in Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states Yorkthe Club of Odd Volumes in Bostonthe Rowfant Club in Clevelandand the Philobiblon Club in Philadelphia Click here to connect to popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states homepage of the Caxton Club.

He brought the first popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states press to England and installed it in the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey, issuing the first dated book known to have been printed in England probably his The Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers in He was an expert editor and translated popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states English many of the works he printed.

See also : Caxton Club and Gutenberg, Johann. See : C anadian B ooksellers A ssociationC enter for B ook A rtsand c ollective b argaining a greement. See : C anadian B ookbinders and B ook A rtists G uild.

See : c losed c aption and c ommon c arrier. See : C omics C ode A uthority. See : C enter for the C onservation of A rt and H istoric A rtifacts. See : C opyright C learance C enter, Inc. See : c ollaborative c ollection d evelopment.

See : C ataloging and C lassification S ection. See : c losed c ircuit t ele v ision. See : c ompact d isc. See : C ommunications D ecency A ct. C ompact D isc- I nteractive, a software and hardware standard developed in by Philips International and Sony Corporation for storing videoaudioand binary data on compact optical disk.

A special stand-alone player that includes a CPUmemoryand an integrated operating system is required, capable of connecting to a television receiver for display ing images and sound or to a stereo system for sound only. CD-I technology allows the user to interact with the system by positioning a cursor to select option s via a remote control device.

Not widely accepted, CD-I application s are used in education, recreation music and computer game setc. Sometimes referred to as the Green Book standard. See : c ollection d evelopment p olicy. C ompact D isc- R ecordable, a blank compact disc invented by Philips and Sony, on which the user can permanently record audio and other digital datausing a CD burner, and then read the content repeatedly.

The entire disc does not have to be written in the same session but once recorded, the information is not erasable. Most CD-R discs have a capacity of minutes. The format retains a high degree of compatibility with standard CD and CD-ROM readers. Synonymous with CD-WO Compact Disc-Write Once and writable CD. C ompact D isc- R popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states O nly M emory pronounced "see dee rahm"a small plastic optical disk similar to an audio compact discmeasuring 4.

Stamped by the producer on the metallic surface, the data encoded on a CD-ROM can be search ed and displayed on a computer screen but not changed or erased. The disc is read by a small laser beam inside a device called a CD-ROM drive.

See also : CD-ROM driveCD-ROM networkand CD-ROM tower. A computer hardware movie review writing nyc designed to store a small number of CD-ROM s or disc modules, click here carousels and robot arms to move one disc at a time to an optical or magnetic reader and back to its storage location.

Colloquially known as a jukebox. Compare with CD-ROM drive and CD-ROM tower. A hardware component designed to read data record ed on a CD-ROM discoriginally an external device but built into most newer microcomputer s. CD-ROM drives can also be used to play audio compact disc s when attached to a sound card via cable. Compare with CD-ROM changer and CD-ROM tower. See : CD-ROM network. A client-server system that makes multiple CD-ROM disc s stored in a CD-ROM tower accessible to users authorized to log on to a computer network.

Most bibliographic database s available on CD-ROM require special licensing for network access. Synonymous with CD-ROM LAN. A computer hardware device designed to store a large number of CD-ROM disc s, usually connected to a server program med to handle network access. Compare with CD-ROM changer and CD-ROM drive.

C ompact D isc- R e W ritable. A compact disc introduced in on which the contents data may be erased and rerecorded multiple times. See : C ataloging D istribution S ervice. See : c arte- d e- v isite. Popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states : C ategories for the D escription of W orks of A rt. Said of a periodical or newspaper no longer published see this examplecourtesy of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.

Publication may eventually resume under the same title or an altered title. Also said of a work published in more than one volumewhich was never completed.

Library holdings are indicated in a closed entry. Compare with canceled and discontinued. See also : cessation. A thin sheet of transparent material of standard size usually acetate having the same proportions as a frame of motion picture filmon which is drawn or painted a single image in a sequence of animation. Original cels from early animated films may have independent value as work s of art. To see examples, try a keywords search on "cel and disney" in Google Images.

Also refers to a transparent sheet used as an overlay against an opaque backgroundas in textbook s on anatomy to show in layers the various systems of the human body. A book of chart s of the heavens. The "golden age" of the celestial atlas occurred from about to The early star atlas was not intended to be a guide to amateur star-gazing, but rather for the use of working astronomers, as a backdrop on which to plot, nur pay for my custom phd essay on pokemon go eines accurately as possible, the changing positions of the moon, planets, and comets.

The best celestial atlases were produced by notable astronomers, based on their own observations. See Out of This World: The Golden Age of the Celestial Atlasan online exhibition by the Linda Hall Library in Weston, Missouri, and also The Heavens: Views of the Universecourtesy of the Library of Congress. Synonymous with sky atlas. A map of the heavens, showing the relative positions of known celestial bodies planets, moons, stars, etc.

Click here and here to see contemporary examples Spaceshots. Click here and here to browse interactive chart s of the solar system U. Synonymous with astronomical map and star map. See also : celestial atlas and planisphere. A map of the heavens on the surface of a sphere. Celestial globe s were originally used to represent the stars and constellations of the night sky, record their relative positions, and solve astronomical problems.

Click here to see an 18th-century example from the collection s of the Royal Library of Denmark and here to see a smaller 16th-century example in silver and brass with clockwork Metropolitan Museum of Art. Click here to explore an interactive example Harvard Map Collection and here to learn more about celestial globes, courtesy of the Whipple MuseumUniversity of Cambridge.

Modern popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states models are available for popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states. In librariescelestial globes are cataloged as cartographic materials.

An intaglio or relief print made from a plate consisting of a base covered with a layer of celluloid dissolved in acetone or similar liquid plastic that is allowed to solidify before the artist begins working the design into its surface. The result often resembles a linocut. Originally a trademark of the Celluloid Manufacturing Company of Newark, New Jersey, established in The term first applied to an early thermoplastic made from cellulose nitrate and melted camphor, used with dyes and other agents in the manufacture of early photograph ic and motion picture film and other commercial products, such as knife handles, popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states, washable collars and cuffs, etc.

Highly flammable and chemically unstable, cellulose nitrate film was replaced by cellulose acetate in the early s, and "celluloid" became a generic term for any motion picture film base. The compound is still used in the manufacture of table tennis balls, for which no material of comparable properties has been found. Sie custom phd content assistance Fremdling here to learn more about celluloid, courtesy of Wikipedia.

A long-chain polymer C 6 H 10 O 5 commonly found in fibrous vegetable material, occurring in almost pure form in cotton fiber. When used in papermakingit is obtained primarily from wood, but was formerly derived from cotton or linen rag s. Cellulose in paper and board made from wood pulp is weakened in time by the presence of acid unless lignin is removed and an alkaline buffer added in manufacture.

Also, a family of plastics that includes cellulose nitratecellulose acetateand cellulose triacetateused as the base in photograph ic and motion picture film s. An umbrella term for motion picture film manufactured with a base of slow-burning acetate plastic.

Because the cellulose nitrate initially used as a film base is highly combustible, manufacturers found a safe substitute in plastics of the cellulose acetate family, introducing cellulose diacetate inacetate propionate and acetate butyrate in the s, and cellulose triacetate in the s. Use of cellulose nitrate as a film base was phased out in the United States in the early s.

All comparatively nonflammable alternatives to nitrate film are known as just click for source film. Kodak popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states film has the words SAFETY FILM printed along the edge. Synonymous with acetate base and acetate film. See also : acetate decay and polyester. An early acetate plastic base for motion picture filmintroduced in See : cellulose acetate.

A flexible base produced popular dissertation chapter editing for hire united states Eastman Kodak from the s until the early s for use in photograph ic negative s and motion picture film. Its combustibility made handling 35mm film a hazardous occupation until the introduction of safety film.

Because nitrate film is also chemically unstable, organizations such as the National Film Preservation Foundation provide grant assistance to film archives to facilitate the copy ing of moving image collection s from cellulose nitrate to a more permanent base, such as cellulose acetate or polyester. Because of the potential fire hazardthe National Fire Protection Association NFPA issues guidelines for the construction of cabinets and vault s used to store nitrate-based motion pictures.

Libraries and archives often store nitrate film off-site. Synonymous with nitrate base. See also : nitrate decay. The strongest acetate plastic base used in the manufacture of motion picture filmintroduced in the s.


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