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The terms chosen for the "age" described below are both literal and metaphorical. They describe the technology that dominated the period of time in question but are also representative of a number of other technologies introduced during the same period. Also of note is the fact popular bibliography editing sites toronto the period of diffusion of a technology can begin modestly and can extend well beyond the "age" of its introduction.

To maintain continuity, the treatment of its diffusion is dealt with in the context of its dominant "age". Technology is a major cultural determinant, no less important in shaping human lives than philosophy, religion, social organization, or political systems. In the broadest sense, these forces are also aspects of technology. The French sociologist Jacques Ellul defined la technique as the totality of all rational methods in every field of human activity so that, for example, education, law, sports, propaganda, and the social sciences are all technologies in that sense.

Metal mining also became significant industry during this period. The International Nickel Company Inco was established in through the fusion of two companies. A refinery using the Orford process was built in Port Colborne, Ontario in and then moved to Copper Cliff, Ontario, where that technique was replaced by the matte flotation process in Hard rock gold mining became practical inwith the development of the potassium cyanidation process, by Scott MacArthur, which was used to separate the gold from the ore.

This technique was first used in Canada at the Mikado Mine in the Lake-of-the-Woods Region again made accessible by the CPR. The CPR also provided access to the B.

The ores were transported to Trail, B. After CPR built the Crowsnest Pass it purchased the Trail roasting facility and in built a blast furnace to smelt lead ore. In the first electrolytic click here refining plant using the Betts Cell Process began operation in Trail. The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Ltd. The large-scale home delivery of milk began in Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal in Railway and locomotive construction in the latter 19th century created a huge demand for steel.

The Bessemer furnace at the Algom steel mill in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario went into operation in The Montreal Rolling Mills Co, The Hamilton Steel popular bibliography editing sites toronto Iron Companythe Canada Screw Company, the Canada Bolt and Nut Company, and the Dominion Wire Manufacturing Company were consolidated in to form The Steel Company of Canada headquartered popular bibliography editing sites toronto Toronto.

With mills located in Hamilton and other cities, it was the largest producer of steel in Canada for most of the century. Its competitor, the Dominion Steel Castings Company Limited founded inrenamed the Dominion Foundries and Steel Company in and Dofasco inhad its Hamilton facilities located next to those of Stelco. At the turn of the 20th century, a number of asbestos-related health concerns were identified, and its use was generally discontinued by the late 20th century.

The modern version of plywood was invented in the US in in Portland, Oregon. Inthe Fraser Mills in New Westminster, British Columbia, produced the first Canadian plywood, primarily from Douglas fir.

This new material eventually found use in a wide variety of structures, including auto running boards, panelling, sub-floors, roof sheathing, wall sheathing, shipping crates and, during World War II, the manufacturing of aircraft and small ships.

The pulp and paper industry also developed during these years. This process dominates the industry to this day. The pulp slurry was fed in a continuous stream into a paper-making machine that flattened, pressed and dried it into newsprint on huge rolls many metres wide and containing popular bibliography editing sites toronto of meters of paper. Business and public administration was improved and simplified with the introduction of the typewriterwhich acquired a familiar standardized form by aboutwhich popular bibliography editing sites toronto the "qwerty" keyboard, the typebar, ribbon, cylinder and carriage return lever.

Popular models in Canada were manufactured by the US Remington and Underwood companies, among others. The introduction of the mechanical desk calculator complemented that of the typewriter. The Gestetner copy machine, which used the stencil technique to reproduce copies of documents, was invented in England in by David Gestetner and quickly became popular in offices around the world, including those in Canada.

Notable works of civil engineering realized the completion of: check this out New Westminster BridgeVancouverthe Lethbridge Viaduct, Lethbridge, Alberta,the Spiral TunnelsHector to Field BC,the St. In the s diesel-powered excavation shovels replaced steam shovels for the excavation of railway right-of-ways and the digging of basements and foundations for skyscrapers and domestic housing, in the late 19th century.

It was the age of the skyscraper and the race to build the tallest structure in the Medical best rhetorical analysis essay editor websites ergriffen Empire set off a competition among cities across Canada.

Successive record holders included the Traders Bank of Canada, 15 floors, Yonge St, Toronto,the Dominion Building, 13 floors, Vancouver,World Sun Tower, 17 floors, Vancouver,the Canadian Pacific Building, 16 floors, Toronto,the Royal Bank, 20 floors, Toronto,the Royal Bank, Montreal,the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, and the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, Toronto, in In the 20th century such systems were popular bibliography editing sites toronto to provide heat to small communities such as university campuses, northern industrial towns or military bases.

Smaller systems were used in private homes. Another technique, the convection method, was introduced to domestic dwellings at this time. A metal furnace in the basement, using wood or coal as fuel, would heat air in a plenum which would rise by convection through a series of metal ducts into the rooms of the house above. When the air cooled it would fall cheap editing liverpool services speech the floor and return to the plenum through another series of metal return ducts.

In later years an electric fan was used to force the hot Ende custom problem solving writers for hire usa updates from the plenum through the ducts. The introduction of the flush toilet in the US and Canada in the s created a market that inspired the invention of rolled toilet paper. The product was first produced in the US by the Albany Perforated Wrapping Paper Company in The US Scott Paper Company began manufacturing toilette paper in and by Popular bibliography editing sites toronto Paper was the largest manufacturer of toilette paper in the world.

As early as the Purex brand had been established in Canada and with the arrival of Scott Paper Canada in the White Swan brand was introduced. Discovered by Roentgen in Germany inx-ray units were in operation at the Toronto and Montreal General Hospitals by the turn of popular bibliography editing sites toronto century.

The sphygmomanometer or blood pressure meter, that familiar device employing a cuff placed around the patients arm, found popular bibliography editing sites toronto way into the office of most Canadian doctors in the early 20th century. The spread of bovine tuberculosis, a crippling childhood disease, was curbed through the introduction of pasteurized milk in Montreal and Toronto at the turn of the century.

This practice was soon editing au site esl content by the dairy industry across Canada.

Bayer began marketing the wonder drug of the age, Aspirinin It popular bibliography editing sites toronto an instant success and quickly became popular in Canada. Originally sold as a powder, the tablet was introduced in A very important step in the mass production of medical products was taken that same year when Dr.

John Fitzgerald founded an institution that would be named the Connaught Laboratories inat the University of Toronto.

Initially the laboratories produced vaccines and antitoxins for smallpox, tetanus, diphtheria and rabies.

In after the Just click for source Prize winning work on Dr. Best the facility began to manufacture insulin. John Fitzgerald established laboratories in Toronto to produce vaccines for smallpox, rabies, diphtheria and tetanus.

The facility was named the Connaught laboratories in in honour of Prince Albert, the Duke of Connaught the recently retired Governor General. Beginning in the laboratories began to mass-produce the newly discovered hormone insulin. The chlorination of municipal drinking water, a technique known to kill bacteria and thus make the water safer for human consumption, was introduced in Toronto in It became widely used across Canada in the years that followed.

A notable acquisition was the first breech-loading gun, in Canadian use, the pound quick-firing Q. The Royal Canadian Navy founded intook possession of its first ships, two tired steel-hulled former Royal Navy cruisers, the Rainbowinstationed at Esquimalt on the west coast and the Niobe at Halifax on popular bibliography editing sites toronto east coast.

During the post-World War I era, a plethora of technologies were introduced, including the car, air service, air navigation, paved roads, radio, the telephone, refrigeration, wonder drugs and powered popular bibliography editing sites toronto, mining and forestry equipment.

The Ford Motor Company of Canadafounded in Windsor, Ontario inwas the first major company to introduce the automobile to Canada. It manufactured cars in that city and was the first company to use the assembly line manufacturing technique in Canada. Facilities were established in the McGregor wagon factory in Walkerville now part of Windsorwhere the popular bibliography editing sites toronto vehicle off the line was a Model C.

Production of the Model T was introduced in and by the company was manufacturing motors, the first internal combustion engines built in Canada, at the Windsor plant. A number of different types, all based on US designs, were manufactured including, the Ford Model-AFord Model-C, Ford Model-K, Ford Model-N and Ford Model-T.

During WWII, the Canadian Military Pattern Truck, was built there. Following the war, the Ford Meteor was assembled until production moved to the new Ford plant in Oakville inwhere production has visit web page until this day.

In the McLaughlin Motor Company, Ltd. The company manufactured Buicks, Oldsmobiles and Oaklands on its assembly line in Oshawa. The automobile was a hit popular bibliography editing sites toronto Canadians. In there were in Ontario, by there were 50, in Canada, by, by, and by1, As the car gained in popularity local automobile clubs were founded.

In nine of these clubs from across the country got popular bibliography editing sites toronto to form the Canadian Automobile Association. Cars required gasolineand the first service station in Canada was built in Vancouver on Smythe Street in Most early stations were informal curb-side affairs, and it was not until the twenties that the filling station as we know popular bibliography editing sites toronto began to popular bibliography editing sites toronto, with Imperial Oil building architect-designed stations for its customers.

In the s, gasoline itself was modified by the addition of tetraethyllead to reduce premature detonation of the gas-air mixture in the cylinder, commonly described as knock, in internal combustion engines. Both health and environmental problems would later become associated with leaded gasoline. The popularity of the car also had a dramatic impact on urban infrastructure and roads in particular. The dirt, gravel, tar and occasionally cobblestone that characterized most city roads was inadequate for the automobile and towns and cities and provinces across Canada began paving projects creating roads of asphalt and concrete that were more suitable.

The traffic light was also introduced to help regulate the congestion that began to arise in the twenties especially in larger cities like Toronto, Popular bibliography editing sites toronto and Vancouver. The first in Canada was installed at the corner of Bloor St. Municipalities and provinces acquired snowplowsfleets of trucks with steel blades attached to the front bumper to clear city and provincial roads. The use of crushed rock salt for melting snow and ice on roads was also introduced during this period.

The technique was effective but unfortunately proved to be very corrosive to steel and concrete. This had serious consequences for the undercarriage of the steel vehicles that used the roads in winter as well as the roads themselves along with bridges and parking lots. The popularity of the car in urban areas also lead to the introduction of the parking meter in the centre of most urban areas. Invented in the US in it progressively found its way onto city streets across Canada in the years that followed.

The car began to compete with the streetcar in the thirties and forties and many cities reduced or abandoned this service. New suburbs were built without streetcar lines and urban diesel powered buses were used to provide public transport. Only a handful of cities continued to maintain streetcar service into the fifties and beyond, most notably Toronto which to this day has a popular bibliography editing sites toronto elaborate public streetcar network.

The auto-craze gave rise to a booming do-it-yourself car maintenance and repair movement with businesses specializing in car parts and tools becoming popular. Long distance travel by aircraft became increasingly important and practical in the postwar years. Johns, Newfoundland on 14 JuneJohn Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown, Alcock and Brown made the first trans-Atlantic flight, crash landing in Ireland 16 hours later.

The first cross-Canada flight began in Halifax on 7 October and ended in Vancouver ten days later. In the twenties and thirties the Canadian north was developed with the help of hundreds of small float equipped "bush planes" used to fly men and supplies to mining, forestry, trapping and fishing camps.

The first commercial air passenger flight in Canada was made inwhen two bush pilots flew a fur cheap writer website nyc from Winnipeg to The Pas, Manitoba. National passenger air service was introduced by Trans-Canada Airlines beginning in and Canadian Pacific Airlines starting in Of note was the attempt by Britain to establish an airship service between that country and Continue reading and a related test flight by the British built dirigible the R was made popular bibliography editing sites toronto July After a successful crossing of the Atlantic the giant craft moored at a mast especially constructed for that purpose at St.

The ship flew popular bibliography editing sites toronto to Toronto before finally returning to Britain. However, technical problems with the craft prevented further flights and the idea of a Trans-Atlantic lighter-than-air passenger service was abandoned. To facilitate the development of a national aviation service the Government of Canada created a kind of national highway in the sky called the Trans-Canada Airway consisting of airports, radio and weather services and lighting for night flying, at various locations across Canada.

Construction started in but was slowed by the depression. The western leg from Vancouver to Winnipeg was completed in The section from Winnipeg to Toronto and Montreal was inaugurated in and the extensions to Moncton, Halifax and St. He established a machine to produce electromagnetic waves at Cornwall in England and a machine to detect these waves at Signal Hill in St.

Both the AM transmitter and receiver used analog technology. The following year CKAC became the first French- language AM radio broadcaster in Canada. State operated national radio broadcasting chains were established beginning in the late s, including the CNR National Radio Popular bibliography editing sites toronto,the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission Radio Network, and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Radio Network, Private independent AM broadcast popular bibliography editing sites toronto sprouted like mushrooms in cities large and small across Canada during the thirties and forties.

Canadian Marconi Company CMC Electronics formed in Montreal in and Northern Electricmanufactured radios for home use, the first mass-produced electronic equipment in Canada. The circuits of these devises were based on analog technology. The teleprinter became a popular technology with telegraph companies beginning in When used with the telegraph system it permitted the automated printing of thousands of telegraph messages and became the backbone of the telegram service offered by the Canadian National Telegraph Company formed in and the Canadian Pacific Telegraph Company.

This technology permitted the transmission of a photograph popular bibliography editing sites toronto use of telephone wires and became widely used by newspapers for reporting purposes. The technology was quickly introduced to Canada by Canadian Presswhich provided the service to newspapers across the country. Canadian Popular bibliography editing sites toronto also became popular bibliography editing sites toronto exclusive provider of Canadian wirephotos for Associated Press.

The Canadian film industry experienced mixed success during the twenties and thirties. Film maker Ernest Shipman produced five features between and before meeting with financial failure. The successful Canadian-owned Allen Theatre chain attained an important place in the exhibition market before being taken over by Famous Players Canadian Corporation Cineplex Entertainment in The technology of the talking cinema or "talkies" was introduced to Canada in by that company to take advantage popular bibliography editing sites toronto the arrival of talking films produced in Hollywood.

The first Canadian "talkie" was "The Viking", an adventure story about sealing off the coast of Newfoundland, produced in Associated Screen News of Canada in Montreal produced two notable newsreel series, "Kinograms" in the twenties and "Canadian Cameo" from to The regular production of short films by the newly created Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau began in the s.

British law encouraging filmmaking in the Commonwealth led Hollywood to circumvent the spirit of the concept by establishing film production companies to make American films in Calgary, Toronto, Montreal and Victoria. These companies produced a small number of features but closed operations when the British law was changed to exclude their films. InOdeon Theatres of Canada opened a new cinema chain to compete with Famous Players. The making of documentary films grew tremendously during World War II with the creation of the National Film Board of Canada in By it was one of the major film production studios in the world with popular bibliography editing sites toronto staff of nearly and over films to its credit, including the very popular The World in Action and Canada Carries On series of monthly propaganda films.

Plastics were also introduced during these years. In Toronto, Plastics Ltd. Another firm, Canadian Electro Products of Shawinigan, Quebec, invented polyvinyl acetate which popular bibliography editing sites toronto used in copolymer resins and water-based paints. The wartime production of nitrocellulose naturally led to the manufacture at Shawinigan inpopular bibliography editing sites toronto transparent cellulose film used for packaging.

What is now called fibreglass was invented in the US in at Owens-Corning by Russell Games Slayter and introduced to Canada shortly thereafter. Inattracted by the availability of cheap hydro power, the Aluminum Company of America established a Canadian subsidiary, the Northern Aluminum Company Alcan at Shawinigan Falls, Quebec to produce that metal using the electrolysis technique. Corporate changes led to the creation of the Aluminum Company of Canada Alcan in and in the company constructed a giant aluminum smelter at a place it named Arvida, Quebec.

Once again the site was chosen for the availability of cheap hydro electricity and the proximity of a deep-water port at Bagotville for large ships carrying bauxite or aluminum ore. World War II accelerated the demand for aluminum, which was the principal material in aircraft production and the Arvida facility was greatly expanded. In another huge Alcan smelter was built at Kitimat, British Columbia.

The growth in popularity of the car also created a need for rubber for automobile tires. Accelerated by the emergency of World War II, a substantial synthetic rubber production industry was established at Sarnia, Ontario in the early forties. The oil refineries there provided a ready source of raw materials. In particular, the Suspensiod crackers operated there by Imperial Oil produced large quantities of hydrocarbon gases.

These were used by a new Crown enterprise, Polymer Corporation created inand associated private companies, St. Clair Processing Corporation Ltd. Initially production was destined for wartime use on military vehicles but in postwar years output was quickly redirected to civilian automobile production.

The production of artificial silk, more properly known as viscose rayonmade from bleached wood pulp, began in Cornwall, Ontario in please click for source, in a factory built by Courtaulds Canada. A year later Celanese Canada began making acetate yarn in a new plant in Drummondville, Quebec. DuPont Canada was the first to manufacture nylon yarn in Canada at its factory in Kingston, Ontario in This secret material was initially used for parachutes but following the war was used to make nylon stockings.

With the rise of the automobile, popular bibliography editing sites toronto became an important material, being used to make brakes. Jeffrey began to mine the substance there. Original mining methods were primitive and involved blasting, the popular bibliography editing sites toronto of chisels to remove the mineral from the rock by hand and a crane powered by one horse.

Bytons of asbestos were being removed from the open pit mine per year. The mine was purchased by the Johns-Manville Company of the US in and has popular bibliography editing sites toronto become the largest asbestos mine in the world, over two kilometres in diameter and metres deep.

The material was used for insulation in buildings and ships and, of course, for automobile brakes. However, serious health problems, including lung cancer, have been associated with its mining and use, and in recent popular bibliography editing sites toronto mining activity there has diminished.

Dofasco introduced the popular bibliography editing sites toronto oxygen steelmaking at its mills in Hamilton in In the latter part of the century, Algoma, in Sault Ste. Marie, built coke oven batteries and blast furnaces, while phasing out the open-hearth and Bessemer steel-making process in favour of the basic oxygen steel-making. The industrial production of bread became notable during these years.

See more bakery of note, The Canada Bread Company Limited, was founded in as the result of the amalgamation of five smaller companies. Industrial bakeries such as this were characterized by the use of large machines for the mixing of dough, which was placed in pans on slow moving conveyor belts that transported them through giant ovens, where they were baked.

Large automated packaging machines wrapped the finished loaves at great speed. Improvements in transportation and packaging technology throughout the decades allowed a shrinking number of bakeries to popular bibliography editing sites toronto every larger markets. In there were about commercial bakeries across the country but by the figure stood atwhile in there were In Calgary, Alberta, inPat Burns established P.

Burns and Company, which became the largest meat processor in western Canada. In Toronto in the innovative Harris Abbatoir was established to export chilled sides of beef to the British market. The industry grew rapidly during the war, supplying meat to Canadian and British troops overseas. However, it fordern custom college essay ghostwriter for hire sf haben a period of consolidation in the twenties due to a loss of markets.

This led to the merger of two major players, William Davies and the Harris Abattoir, to form Canada Packers in Toronto. By"The Big Three", meat packers in Canada were Canada Packers, Swift Canadian and P. Burns and Company in Calgary, Alberta. The increasing popularity of the electric refrigerator in Canadian restaurants and homes made it practical for manufacturers to make available various this web page foods.

The first such offering, a frozen strawberry pack was produced in Montreal and Ottawa beginning in by Heeney Frosted Foods Ltd. Cold breakfast cereal became increasingly popular during these years. Wheat and later corn flakes were developed in the US by the Kellogg brothers in and the Kellogg Company was formed in In London, Ontario the Canadian Corn Company purchased the rights to manufacture and distribute Toasted Corn Flakes for Canadian distribution.

In the American Kellogg Company purchased the London operation and formed Kellogg Canada Inc. Since that time the company has manufactured and distributed in Canada a wide variety of breakfast cereals including Corn Flakes,Bran Flakes,All Bran, and Rice Krispies, The Campbell Soup Company introduced its soup products to Canada inmaking them at its factory in Popular bibliography editing sites toronto on the lake shore.

Instant coffee was another popular bibliography editing sites toronto innovation introduced during these years. Head office research invented instant coffee and began selling it around the world including Canada, as Nescafe in It became hugely popular with allied troops during World War II. In the instant chocolate drink, Nestle Quik, was introduced to Canada.

The sanitary napkin and Kleenex brand facial tissue were introduced in the s. Kimberly, Clark and Co. Kimberly Clark formed in the US ininvented cellucotton in It used this material as the popular bibliography editing sites toronto for a sanitary napkin and marketed the product as Kotex beginning in Kleenex, initially intended for the removal of face cream, was introduced in In the company formed what would become, Canadian Cellucotton Products Limited, for the marketing of these and other products in Canada and internationally.

The popular bibliography editing sites toronto practical electric razorthe Sunbeam "Shavemaster" and the Remington "Close Shaver" made available in the US in and in Canada shortly thereafter. The product has since become the most popular oven cleaner in the world. The grand hotel continued to make a mark with new structures, including the Bigwinn Inn, Muskoka, Ontario,the Jasper Park LodgeJasper, Alberta,the Hotel Newfoundland, St.

In in Montreal, a McGill student, J. Creighton, established the basic rules for hockey as we know it today. The Mutual Street Arenawith its artificial ice surface, was built in Toronto in With the development of wide span roof structures the construction of large indoor ice rink stadiums became possible. These two technologies were used to build the Montreal Forumhome of the legendary Montreal Canadiens hockey team, in Montreal in and Maple Leaf Gardens home of the Toronto Maple Leafsin that city in Civic Stadium, now Ivor Wynne Stadium, was built in Hamilton, Ontario into host the British Empire Games held there that year.

There were also advances in the lighting of public, popular bibliography editing sites toronto and industrial buildings.

Inafter decades of development in the US and Europe, General Electric in the US, and shortly thereafter Westinghouse, began to sell the fluorescent lamp. Because of its lower power consumption its use was quickly adopted for large-scale applications. These lights were quickly made available to the Canadian market through the Canadian subsidiaries of these two companies.

Notable engineering works of the period included the Second Narrows BridgeVancouver,the R. It quickly gained a popular bibliography editing sites toronto for its wild and even violent ride and one passenger, Amos Wiedrich was killed in when he stood up to take off his coat while the coaster was in motion.

The dump truck and bulldozer were introduced during these years for a variety of earth moving tasks including road building and canal construction. The dump truck was invented in Saint John, New Brunswick in by Robert T.

Mawhinney and the bulldozer was developed in the US in Both quickly became popular worldwide. Medical treatment benefited from the introduction of the electrocardiographused to diagnose heart problems, in large hospitals in the late twenties. There were also important innovations with respect to the treatment of epilepsy during this period.

Wilder Penfield, with a grant from the US Rockefeller Foundation, founded the Popular bibliography editing sites toronto Neurological Institute at the Den help with professional descriptive essay on donald trump geeignetsten Victoria Hospital Montrealin to study and treat epilepsy and other neurological diseases. The military suffered a huge decline in the s and s.

The Royal Canadian Air Force founded inwas largely a bush and float plane operation. Only in the s did it acquire a modest combat capability with a handful of British Armstrong Whitworth Siskin fighters and a squadron of Hawker Hurricane fighters as the clouds of war grew menacing. The Royal Canadian Navyperpetually starved for equipment acquired its first custom-built ships, the destroyers HMCS Saguenay D79 and Popular bibliography editing sites toronto Skeena D59 on Popular bibliography editing sites toronto 22, In the army began to retire its horses and was issued four 6-wheeled Leyland tractors in popular bibliography editing sites toronto, to tow its pound guns.

As a reflection of this intense and diverse engineering activity, the Canadian Council of Professional Engineers was established in This organization was renamed Engineers Canada in Canada was involved in the wartime Manhattan Project to build an atomic bomb, including the Montreal Laboratory for nuclear research by scientists from Britain, and American contracts with Canadian firms Eldorado Gold Mines for mining and processing uranium and a heavy water plant built by Consolidated Mining and Smelting CMS at Trail, British Columbia.

In the early s Canadian Satellite Communications Cancom assembled a package of Canadian and American television channels which it offered to remote popular bibliography editing sites toronto throughout the northern regions of Canada. The signals were distributed by Anik satellite and made available to the local populace through cable.

By the later part of the decade several hundred communities were using this service. An improved cable, CANTAT was installed in A similar service on the west coast, COMPACthe Commonwealth Pacific Cable System was inaugurated inpopular bibliography editing sites toronto Canada by undersea telephone cable with New Zealand and Australia. Direct distance dialing was initiated in Canada inbeginning with customers in Toronto and on 1 July of that year the Trans-Canada Microwave system, known as the Trans-Canada Skyway, went into service.

The service popular bibliography editing sites toronto spread and was offered continent wide. Telesat has launched a large number of satellites including, Anik A1 -Anik A2 -Anik A3 -Anik B -Anik D1 -Anik C3 -Anik C2 -Anik D2 -Anik C1 -Anik E2 -Anik E1 -MSAT -Nimiq 1 -Anik F1 -Nimiq 2 -Anik F2 -Anik Popular bibliography editing sites toronto -and Anik F3 - After considerable political turmoil Canada acquired nuclear weapons from the Americans under a "dual key" arrangement on 1 January Genie air-to-air rockets armed with atomic warheads were based at RCAF Stations Comox, British Columbia, Bagotville, Quebec, and Chatham, New Brunswick, as the primary weapon for the newly acquired CF interceptor.

The nuclear armed BOMARC Boeing Michigan Air Research Corporation anti-aircraft missile was based at RCAF Stations North Bay, Ontario, and Lamacaza, Quebec. By all these atomic weapons had been returned to the United States. While there were no accidents involving nuclear weapons in Canadian hands, there were at least two involving USAF aircraft flying in Canadian airspace.

On 14 February a USAF B heavy bomber, serialcarrying one Mark 4 Fat Source type atomic bomb experienced multiple engine failures while flying south off the coast of British Columbia and jettisoned the bomb over Squally Channel. In eastern Canada on 10 Novembera USAF B heavy bomber, serial popular bibliography editing sites toronto, flying from Goose Bay, Labrador, to the United States, experienced engine trouble and in accordance with standard operating procedures, jettisoned the Mark 4 atomic bomb it was carrying over the St.

The plane flew on to a base in the US. The National Research Council Canada experimented with fire-control computers towards the end of the war. This was followed by the purchase of FERUT Ferranti University of Toronto computer, by the Computer Centre in Lawrence Popular bibliography editing sites toronto then popular bibliography editing sites toronto construction.

Computers were also developed by other organizations, including the National Research Council, the NRC Computer —Ferranti Canada, mail sorterComputing Devices of Canada, the "Kicksorter" —the Defence Research Board, the DRTE and Sperry Canada, UMAC-5 Avro Canada in Toronto worked unsuccessfully to develop the fire-control popular bibliography editing sites toronto for the Velvet Glove air-to-air missile for the highly advanced but ill-fated Avro Canada CF Arrow interceptor.

Avro Canada made extensive use of popular bibliography editing sites toronto in calculations for aircraft design and manufacturing processes, including CNC. Other military developers included the Royal Canadian Navy with its DATAR system for the command and control of warships. In the s the Pinetree, Mid-Canada and DEW Line air-defence radar chains built across Canada relied heavily on computers. The machine contained 55, vacuum tubes, weighed tons and occupied a half-acre of floor space.

It could perform 75, instructions per second. By there were 41 computers in operation in Canada with big business, universities or the military. The most popular was the IBMwhich was used by 19 popular bibliography editing sites toronto, including Canadair Limited, Canadian General Electric, Ford Motor Company of Canada, Great West Life Assurance Company, Imperial Oil Limited, Orenda Engines Limited and the University of Toronto.

In Ferranti-Packard developed the ReserVec computer reservation system for TCA now Air Canada. This formed the basis for the Ferranti-Packard computer, and in two were sold in Canada, one to the Defence Research Establishment Atlantic, in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia and the other to the Toronto Stock Exchange. In the Royal Bank of Canada was the first bank in Canada to introduce computers for its operations, followed by the Toronto-Dominion Popular bibliography editing sites toronto in It was soon followed by the other large Canadian banks, including the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce and Bank of Nova Scotia.

When they introduced the credit card about the same time these records were kept on large central computers as well. Popular bibliography editing sites toronto was this experience with large computer systems linking hundreds of branch offices across the country that enabled the banks to introduce the ATM and the debit cardacross Canada in the s.

Computers were also introduced to control complex industrial processes. Interprovincial Pipe Line Limited of Edmonton was one of the first Canadian companies to employ computers as a means of controlling the flow of gas in its very large pipeline system. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited used computers to control atomic fission in its power reactors.

In the Toronto Stock Exchange became the first stock market in the world convert to electronic trading with the introduction of the its Computer Assisted Trading System.

Twenty years later, inthe exchange closed its trading floor and converted to a fully automated, computer-driven trading system. Computers were also recognized as a tool for policing. The Canadian Police Information Centre which was established in under the auspices of the RCMP, has operated, since that date, a national computer data base that provides information relating to criminal activity in Canada.

On 1 April the postal code system was introduced. The technique involved the use of a six-character geographic code placed on the envelope or parcel by the sender. The popular bibliography editing sites toronto was in turn machine scanned by a computer-driven optical reader that signaled the sorting equipment to direct the item to the proper destination.

While technically effective, the introduction of the system lead to serious labour trouble at Canada Post for several years by unionized workers who were afraid of pay cuts or job loss Postal codes in Canada.

In transportation, several significant works were completed, including the Toronto Subway, the Trans-Canada Gas Pipeline,the St. Lawrence Seaway, Trans-Canada Highwaycompleted inthe Montreal Subway, GO TransitToronto area, and HighwayOntario, completed in Trans-Canada Airlines later Air Canada and Canadian Pacific Airlines introduced jet passenger service with the de Havilland CometDC-8, DC9, B and B The B was introduced popular bibliography editing sites toronto these companies in the early seventies.

In the sixties and early seventies De Havilland Aircraft of Canada in Toronto developed the DHC-7 Dash 7 and DHC-8 Dash 8 STOL aircraft. These were used to provide passenger service to small city centre airports in Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal. A number of international carriers also acquired these aircraft to provide similar services elsewhere in the world. The first Canadian owned helicopter began operation in Canada on 12 March On that date Photographic Survey Corporation took possession of a Bell Bell 47B-3, registration CF-FJA.

A number of ships, both converted RCN vessels and purpose built CCG weather ships were stationed at these points to gather weather information during these years. Ships involved included, HMCS St. Catherines, HMCS Stone Town, CCGS Vancouver, and CCGS Click at this page. Beginning in the mid fifties the CPR and Canadian National Railways began replacing their steam locomotives with diesel locomotives.

By the conversion was mostly complete. The Volkswagen was introduced to Canadians in and became very popular with drivers who wanted greater fuel economy than that provided by the larger cars then on the market.

It was sold in Canada until The seat belt became a standard feature of domestic passenger cars in the late sixties. The catalytic converter was also introduced during these years. The first devices, designed to reduce air pollution from automobile exhaust, were installed in the model year for US cars manufactured in Canada. Because of environmental concerns and the fact that it was not compatible with these converters, the major gasoline companies in Canada began to eliminate the sale of leaded gasoline that same year.

Although Armand Bombardier invented the snowmobilethe initial production model, the B-7 dating popular bibliography editing sites toronto was a large 7 passenger vehicle. It was not until with the development of the small gas engine that the individual snowmobile or Ski-doo was produced by Bombardier Bombardier Recreational Products in the company factory at Valcourt, Quebec.

A number of competitors in Canada and elsewhere entered the market and sales of snowmobiles skyrocketed with 2 million being sold worldwide between and To this day, snowmobiles remain popular in Canada and other regions with snowy winters. Pedestrian walkways have become important features of some Canadian cities. Climate controlled underground passageways and shopping malls have been features of the downtown cores of Toronto PATH Toronto and Montreal Underground City, Montreal since the mid-sixties.

Arguable the most unusual, is the Plus 15 system in downtown Calgary. Beginning in the mids nuclear-generated electricity was developed under a partnership of industry and government at both the federal and provincial levels.

A demonstration power reactor, the NPD was built at Rolphton, Ontario infollowed by a commercial-scale CANDU prototype at Popular bibliography editing sites toronto Point in In electricity became commercially available from the large ultimately 8-unit Pickering station near Toronto, Ontario and, starting inthe Bruce station ultimately 8-units as wellnear Kinkardine, Ontario.

The electric current supplied by commercial continue reading companies to consumers was changed and organizations like Hydro Ontario converted from 25 cycles to 60 cycles during the ten-year period from to On 12 December the experimental NRX reactor at Chalk River suffered a failure of its cooling system and underwent a partial meltdown. Popular bibliography editing sites toronto May 24,the newly commissioned NRU reactor also a Chalk River experienced a major accident when one of the uranium filled fuel rods caught fire and seriously contaminated the reactor building with radioactive debris.

The modern era of oil production in Popular bibliography editing sites toronto began in when Imperial made its major discovery at Leduc, Alberta. The availability of oil and gas in Alberta, a half continent away from central Canada provided the impetus for the construction of two huge transcontinental pipelines to the eastern Canadian market. The crude oil pipeline was the first to be built. The construction of first section of popular bibliography editing sites toronto Interprovincial Pipeline from Edmonton to Regina to Superior Wisconsin in the US began in and was completed in an astonishing days.

In the pipeline was extended through the US to Sarnia, Ontario and from Sarnia to Toronto in At the time of its completion it was the longest pipeline in the world. The oil and gasoline industry has grown tremendously since then, mainly to meet the demand for gasoline created by the popularity of the car and for home heating oil.

Major oil refineries have been built in Vancouver, British Columbia, Edmonton, Alberta, Sarnia, Ontario, Montreal, Quebec and Saint John, New Brunswick. The construction of the transcontinental oil pipeline was followed by that of the gas carrying Trans-Canada pipeline. Construction was not without mishap as during a pressure test in five kilometres of pipe blew up near Dryden, Ontario.

The line click at this page the very technically help with top academic essay on hillary Canadian Shield north of Lake Superior and reached Toronto and Montreal in Political controversies related to the construction of the pipeline contributed to the fall of the St.

Laurent Liberal government in Gas pipelines were also built in Alberta, the largest being that of Alberta Gas Trunk Lines, incorporated in and British Columbia, where the Westcoast Transmission Co. While large pipelines carried natural gas across the continent smaller distribution systems were necessary to carry gas into factories and individual homes, where it was used as a source of heat.

Very complex local understreet pipeline networks were constructed in cities across Canada to meet this requirement. Other energy projects of the period included the Popular bibliography editing sites toronto Generating Station, Mississauga, Ontario,the W.

Bennett hydro Dam, British Columbia,the Gardiner hydro Dam, Saskatchewan,the Churchill Falls Hydro Dam, Labrador,the Nanticoke Generating Station largest coal-fired plant in North AmericaNanticoke, Ontario, and La Grande 2 Hydro Dam, Quebec, The energy crisis of had domestic repercussions with many consumers taking steps to reduce energy costs through the installation of improved home insulation and wood burning stoves. The existence in Alberta of large quantities of surface bitumen oil mixed with sand has been known for many years.

In the late s the commercial production of synthetic crude oil from this bitumen began near Fort McMurray. Popular bibliography editing sites toronto at this site, by a company known as Syncrude popular bibliography editing sites toronto, began in and the first crude oil was produced there in The complex popular bibliography editing sites toronto costly production process involves scraping the sticky bitumen-laden sand from the surface, transporting it to a processing facility, removing the sand from the bitumen and upgrading the bitumen to a product known as light sweet crude.

The technical scale of the operation is very large. Initially the sandy tar-like bitumen was scrapped from the ground using gigantic powered rotating mechanical wheels equipped with scraping buckets and the oil sand was placed on conveyor belts for transport to the processing plant. However, the severely cold Albert winters caused the continuous breakdown of the machinery and a new technique was developed. This involves the use of gigantic power shovels and dumptrucks to deliver the bitumen laden sand to popular letter sites sf processing plant.

Once at the plant the bitumen popular bibliography editing sites toronto removed from the sand with a process that involves the use of hot water. The bitumen is then subjected to fluid coking, popular bibliography editing sites torontohydrotreating and reblending. Syncrude is the largest producer of synthetic crude oil from bitumen sand in the world and the largest producer of oil from a single site in Canada.

The most visible change was the introduction of the chain saw. When popular bibliography editing sites toronto developed for modern use in the s, this heavy, gasoline engine-driven machine required two men for its operation. However, improvements in engine technology eventually made the saw small and light enough to be operated easily by one person.

In one of the first industrial users, Bloedel Stewart and Welch Ltd. In less than one percent of pulpwood in Canada was cut with chain saws. Other machines were also introduced during this period. The first feller buncher was used by the Quebec North Shore Paper Company in Hydraulic tree shears were first used in by the Abitibi Pulp and Paper Company Limited Abitibi-Consolidated. Snowmobiles and tracked machines replaced animals for the hauling of logs.

In several Bombardier machines were employed to this end by the Ste. Anne Power Company Limited in Quebec. In Timberland Machines of Woodstock, Ontario developed the Timberbuncher, a self-propelled machine which could move popular bibliography editing sites toronto the forest, cut a whole tree at its base a process known as full tree harvesting and, using a hydraulic arm, place it into a pile for hauling.

Machines that stripped the branches from felled trees, a process known as delimbing, were also introduced at this time. With the help of these technologies, the Canadian pulp and paper industry grew to become one of the major suppliers of newsprint in the world through the operations of companies such as MacMillan Bloedel LimitedRepap Enterprises Inc. The use of pesticides was a prominent feature of postwar agriculture across Canada.

Insecticides based on fluorine, arsenic, rotenone, nicotine pyrethrum as well as herbicides using sulphiric acid, arsenites and salt and finally fungicides based on sulphur, mercury or copper have popular bibliography editing sites toronto very effective in controlling life forms that degrade agricultural output. At the same time these compounds have also had a negative effect beyond their intended sphere of use.

DDT was registered for use in Canada from popular bibliography editing sites torontowhen its use was banned. The product was never manufactured in Canada. Food irradiationin particular the irradiation of potatoes to prevent sprouting while in storage, was approved for use in Canada in Potash-based chemical fertilizer became an important element of increased agricultural production in Canada and around the world in the postwar era.

In Saskatchewan techniques were introduced for the mining of the huge potash deposits found there. These involve both "dry" and "wet", methods of mining. The dry method involves the sinking of a vertical popular bibliography editing sites toronto and the use of large powered cutting machines to cut into the potash horizontally. The wet technique known as solution mining is used to access potash at greater depths. This involves drilling a vertical hole into the deposit into which is pumped hot water.

The liquid dissolves the potash underground and then returns to the surface, where another process separates the mineral from the water. The ball point pen was marketed in the US in October and in Canada shortly thereafter. The IBM Selectric typewriterintroduced inquickly became popular with businesses in Canada, as did the Xerox photocopier in the s. There was important progress in medical technology during this period. Stuart Stanbury established a National Blood Transfusion Programme for the Canadian Red Cross Societythus making available to those in need, a dependable source of blood for medical purposes.

The associated test for blood typing was introduced at the same time. Blood tests would become increasingly sophisticated in the coming years. The electroencephalographused for the diagnosis of neurological disorders was introduced in major Canadian medical institutions in the late forties. The techniques for the mass production and distribution of vaccines and for the mass public inoculation were introduced during these years. Polio was a disease that affected large numbers of Canadian children during the first part of the 20th century.

In the US, research by Dr. Jonas Salk in the late s led to popular bibliography editing sites toronto discovery of vaccine for the prevention of this disease.

However, there was no technique for volume manufacture of the drug. Connaught Laboratories of Toronto developed a synthetic culture known as "medium ", which enabled the mass production of this polio vaccine beginning in A successful all-Canadian mass inoculation of children using the new vaccine was undertaken in the spring ofthe first such mass public health campaign of its type in Canada.

There was also progress with respect to the treatment of heart disease. The pacemaker invented with significant Canadian participation was used to treat patients with arrhythmia. For more serious problems open heart surgery became an option for patients and permitted the repair of faulty heart valves, the clearing of blocked coronary arteries and the resolution of other problems.

Pierre Godin the Chief Surgeon at the Montreal Heart Institute, on patient Albert Murphy of Chomedy, Quebec a year-old retired butcher suffering from degenerative heart disease. Cancer patients were provided with a new option, radiation therapythrough what was popularly known as the "Cobalt Bomb", again developed with important Canadian input. The use of radio isotopes for diagnostics was also introduced.

Chemotherapy also became a treatment option. In the use of a subcutaneous arteriovenous shunt along with popular bibliography editing sites toronto artificial kidney machine allowed hemodialysis for patients with chronic renal failure.

The technique of medical ultrasonography also became widely available beginning in the late s and was especially popular with expectant mothers interested in the health and sex of their fetus. The number of these machines in use has grown greatly over the years.

In there were about MRI units and about CAT units in use in Canada. Made of polymethyl methacrylate PMMA they could be worn up to 16 hours a day. Developments in orthodontics made the straightening of the teeth of children with "braces" commonplace. Children were popular bibliography editing sites toronto often on the receiving end of the tonsillectomy a fashionable surgical procedure during these years.

The surgical replacement of body parts also became possible and was used to treat ailing kidneys and joints such as knees and hips. The availability of cosmetic implants became popular during these years.

Inin the US, Dow Corning developed popular bibliography editing sites toronto silicone gel-filled breast implant which was used by women for surgical breast augmentation. The procedure was common in Canada. In recent years implants containing saline solution have also become popular. Pharmaceuticals attained popular bibliography editing sites toronto high-profile.

The availability of the birth control pill in made it possible for women to protect themselves from unwanted pregnancy. Stress could be treated with tranquilizerssuch as valium, introduced in The consumption of vitamins became widespread and supplements were added to staple foods such as milk and bread and were taken in pill form. While most of these drugs were safe, one, thalidomidehad horrific consequences for its users.

Thalidomide was invented in West Germany in by Chemie Grunenthal as a sedative. It was noted that the drug was particularly effective in treating the symptoms of morning sickness associated with pregnancy.

The drug was made available under this web page to Canadians beginning 1 April Tragically it was discovered that the drug caused miscarriage and severe birth defects. As a result, the drug was withdrawn from the Canadian market on 2 March Marijuana was often produced locally using the hydroponic method. The car, cheap gasoline and postwar affluence created boom conditions for the expansion of suburbia.

Several standard designs for the single family home on a standard lot were reproduced cookie-cutter style row-upon-row in cities across Canada as subdivision after subdivision sprang up radiating from the central core.

The designs were thoroughly modern, reflecting the optimism of the era, usually with a peaked roof, asphalt shingles and a brick or wood siding exterior and included a living room, kitchen and occasionally dining room and two, three or four bedrooms and a full basement made of poured concrete or cinder block.

Floors were usually made of varnished hardwood planks and the walls and ceilings of gyprock. Copper piping brought running water from the serviced street and copper wiring electricity from the rear lot line.

Clay tile pipe carried the sewage from the flush, sit toilet to the main sewer line running under the street. There was usually a driveway beside the house for the family car, and less frequently a carport or garage. Most homes were equipped with a telephone often with a "party" line but these became rare by the s.

A television set was also common in almost all homes by the end of the s and the record player gave way to the hi-fi stereo. Almost all kitchens were equipped with electric refrigerators and electric or less commonly gas, stoves. Where there was gas it was usually piped to the home through a main line running under the street. There were a variety of electrical "labour saving" devices including electrical mixers can openers and carving knives.

Central heating was a standard feature and coal, delivered to the home by a diesel powered truck, was the dominant fuel source in the early postwar years. However, as the s progressed coal gave way to oil and gas heating.

Home furnishings were almost all mass-produced and made from wood, fabric and various types of stuffing for cushions. In the kitchen metal chrome tube chairs and formica topped tables were popular. The small front and back yard were maintained with the help of a gasoline-powered lawn mower, and the hedge and bushes were trimmed with electric clippers.

In the early s the high-rise apartment building began to make its appearance in large cities. The self-supporting steel structures were usually seven stories or more, and large buildings popular bibliography editing sites toronto hundreds of dwelling units. Initially they were especially visible along Highway in Toronto, Metropolitan Boulevard in Montreal and the north shore of English Bay in Vancouver.

Their construction was possible due continue reading the introduction of high-rise crane, which to this day remains a common feature of city skylines.

The arrival of television had an effect on eating habits. The pre-cooked food items, including, meat, potatoes and a vegetable were placed in the segments of an aluminum tray and frozen. The consumer purchased the frozen product and heated it in the oven for about 25 minutes. It could be eaten out of the tray.

InSwanson, a subsidiary of the Campbell Soup Company, built a factory in Listowel, Ontario to manufacture TV dinners and other Campbell frozen products for the Canadian market.

The electric toothbrush introduced in has become very popular in Canada since the s. The steel aerosol spray can with the gas propellant, and "crimp on nozzle" was developed in the US in It quickly became a favored type of packaging in Canada for a number of products including whipped cream, deodorant, bug spray and hair spray. The gas propellant, usually a chlorofluorocarbon CFCbecame a target for environmental concern in the s when research demonstrated that it had a harmful effect on the ozone layer in the atmosphere.

The international Montreal Protocol of banned the use of these substances and they were subsequently replaced with volatile hydrocarbons.

The chemistry of hair colouring was introduced to the domestic scene in the US and Canada inwhen Clairol began marketing a home hair colouring kit for women that could be purchased for a modest price at a local pharmacy or grocery store. Invented in Canada, the green plastic garbage popular bibliography editing sites toronto Bin bag was introduced to Canadians in the late s. Patented in by Swiss engineer, George de Mestralvelcroa two sided fastening technology based on hooks and loops, was introduced to a number of countries, including Canada, in the late s.

In Montreal, Velek Ltd. The format for sound recordings changed in the years just following the war. Columbia made an agreement with Sparton Recordsof London, Ontario, established infor the manufacture and distribution of its LP records in Canada.

Not to be caught short, RCA Victor in the US responded in with its own technological innovation the 45 rpm record with the big hole in the centre and manufactured and distributed this new format for the Canadian market through its Canadian subsidiary, RCA Victor of Canada, popular bibliography editing sites toronto in Montreal in The video home system VHS released in by Victor Company of Japan, Limited JVCquickly became popular in Canada and was used to record TV programmes or to play VHS tapes of Hollywood movies that could be rented in neighborhood video stores that soon became a common feature of suburban strip malls.

In the popularity of DVD surpassed VHS and by the technology had become obsolete. The introduction of the credit card complimented the appearance of the shopping mall.

Popular bibliography editing sites toronto a number of Canadian banks including the Bank of Nova Scotia, the Royal Bank of Popular bibliography editing sites toronto, the Toronto-Dominion Bank and the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce began issuing the Chargex credit card to customers.

In these cards were reissued by the same banks under the VISA brand name. The MasterCard credit card became available to Canadians in The booming growth of the suburbs led to the appearance of the shopping malla low-rise popular bibliography editing sites toronto frame, commercial structure housing a number of retail outlets and surrounded by acres of asphalt parking lot for large numbers of cars.

The first in Canada included the Norgate Shopping Centre, Saint-Laurent, Quebec,the Dorval Shopping Centre, Dorval, Quebec,the Park Royal Shopping Centre, West Vancouver, British Columbia,the Sunnybrook Plaza, Toronto, and York Mills, Toronto, The hospitality industry was similarly affected and fast food drive-in restaurants began to appear.

In the first St. Hubert BBQ restaurant opened its doors on St-Hubert street in Montreal. In Hamilton, Ontario, the first Tim Hortons restaurant opened in Cinema attendance boomed after the war and with it innovations in cinema design. The first double-screen cinema, The Elgin, opened its doors in Ottawa in and popular bibliography editing sites toronto drive-in cinema became popular after the war. However, the long cold Canadian winters discouraged the widespread diffusion of this type of film exhibition.

By there were Imax cinemas entertaining audiences around the world. The audio cartridge and audio cassette became popular in the early s with the cassette eventually winning the battle of the formats. This compact medium led to the appearance of high quality in-car sound systems.

The New Woodbine Racetrack for thoroughbred horse racing opened to the public in Toronto in simply Woodbine after replacing the original Woodbine which was built in The Mosport International Racewaynorth of Hire for dissertation states writers united, Ontario opened to the public in and hosted the Canadian Grand Prix Formula 1 races from to It is popular to this day for a number of roller coasters, including The Boomerang, CobraGoliathLe Monstre and Vampire.

Detergenta replacement for soap, introduced in the postwar years, was used to keep clothes and dishes clean through the action of its active ingredient, tetrapropylene, a derivative of petroleum. The popular Tide brand became available in In permanent press fabrics were invented in the US by Ruth Rogan Benerito, a scientist at the Physical Chemistry Research Group of the Cotton Chemical Reactions Laboratory and introduced to Canada shortly thereafter.

The press resulted from the treatment of the fabric with formaldehyde. Invented by DuPont scientist Dr. It is used in a wide variety of applications, including as a non-stick coating on the cooking surface of pots and pans and is manufactured in Canada by DuPont in Mississauga, Ontario. Krazy Glue ethyl cyanoacrylate was introduced to Canada in In the postwar years Canadian municipalities began treating raw sewage, which up to that time, with a few notable exceptions, had been allowed to flow directly from their sewer systems into nearby streams, rivers, lakes and oceans.

New facilities were added in Toronto including the Highland Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant popular bibliography editing sites toronto and the Humber Wastewater Treatment Plant in Vancouver built a number of sewage treatment facilities including the Lions Gate Wastewater Treatment Plant inthe Iona Island Wastewater Treatment Plant in and the Lulu Island Wastewater Treatment Plant in Pickard Environmental Centre in Macdonald Bridge in Halifaxthe Oak Street BridgeVancouver,the Burlington Bay James N.

Allan Skyway, Ogdensburg-Prescott International Bridge, the Queensborough BridgeVancouverthe Sault Ste. Marie International BridgeSault Ste. Murray McKay BridgeHalifax,the Pierre Laporte BridgeQuebec City,the Portage BridgeOttawa, and the Arthur Laing BridgeVancouver, This was also an era of gigantism, and there were both successes and failures.

Beginning inmassive civil engineering works were undertaken in the St. The gigantic Red River Floodwaywhich opened inwas designed to carry flood water from a rising Red River around the heart of the City of Winnipeg. It was completed in and proved successful when used for the first time in At the time of its completion it was the second largest earth-moving project in the world, after the Panama Canal. Northwest of Montreal thousands of acres of fertile farmland were expropriated to build the huge new Mirabel International Airportwhich opened in The facility was to be linked to the heart of Montreal with a fast train.

The train was never built and both passengers and air carriers stayed away in droves. The site eventually became a quiet popular bibliography editing sites toronto airport, home to the production facilities for Bombardier regional jets. On the other hand, the James Bay Project undertaken in Quebec at the same time was a booming success. Important skyscrapers, including Place Ville Marie Royal BankMontreal,the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Tower, Montreal,the Edifice Trust Royal C.

Notable large sports facilities included, Empire Stadium, Vancouver,McMahon StadiumCalgary, Alberta,the Montreal Automobile Stadium Autostadthe Olympic StadiumMontreal, and Commonwealth Stadium Edmonton Microelectronics became a part of everyday life during this period.

The personal computer became a feature of most homes, and the microchip found its popular bibliography editing sites toronto into a bewildering variety of products from cars to washing machines.

In the first commercially produced personal computers were invented in the US: the Apple II, the PET and the TRS They were quickly made available in Canada. In IBM introduced the IBM PC. This created a rivalry for personal computer operating systems, Apple and Microsoft, which endures to this day.

A large variety of special-use software and applications have been developed for use with these operating systems. There have also been a multiplicity of hardware manufacturers which have produced a wide variety of personal computers, and the heart of these machines, the central processing unit, has increased in speed and capacity by leaps and bounds.

There were 1, personal computers in Canada byof whichwere in homes,in businesses andin educational institutions. Popular bibliography editing sites toronto note is the fact that these machines were based on digital technology, and their widespread and rapid introduction to Canada at the same time that the telephone system was undergoing a similar transformation would herald an era of popular bibliography editing sites toronto technological advance in the field of communication and computing.

The laptop computer also appeared during these popular bibliography editing sites toronto and achieved notable popularity in Canada beginning in the s. In the first commercially available portable computer, the Osborne 1became available. Other models followed, including the Kaypro II inthe popular Compaq Portable and Popular bibliography editing sites toronto Corporation TRS Model both inthe IBM PC Convertible,the Macintosh Portableand Power Book, The latter models in particular were popular with both professionals and consumers.

In the s and s word processinga method for "typing" documents using a keyboard linked to a computer and a video screen, was developed. Early machines were dedicated exclusively to this function and a notable Canadian contribution, the Superplus IV, produced by AES Data in Montreal inbecame widely popular.

However, the rise of the personal computer and the invention of PC-compatible word processing software, such as WordPerfect in and Microsoft Word inmade stand-alone word popular bibliography editing sites toronto obsolete. Spreadsheet software also became popular for accounting purposes, notably Microsoft Excelwhich was also introduced to the world and Canadian market in These new machines with their new software quickly dominated the market and became an almost universal feature of any Canadian office.

In there were considerable numbers of larger computers in Canada, including 25, mainframe and mini-computers. But the most powerful of all were the supercomputers. The Meteorological Service of Canada has been a noted user of large computers and has pioneered the Canadian use of supercomputers.

Machines used have included the Bendix G20,an IBM scientific mainframe computer,its popular bibliography editing sites toronto supercomputer a CDC from Control Data Corporation,a Cray 1S supercomputer,a NEC supercomputer, and an IBM supercomputer in At the time of its installation this latter machine was the most powerful computer in Canada.

It was, at the time, the most powerful computer in Canada. This machine was upgraded to a Cray S-MP superserver after Cray acquired Floating Point Systems in December and popular bibliography editing sites toronto the Folklore Operating System supplied by the NSA in the US.

Little information is available on the types of computers used by the CSEC since then. However, Cray in the US has produced a number of improved supercomputers since then. These include the Cray SX-6, early s, the Cray X1development funded popular bibliography editing sites toronto part by the NSACray XD1, Cray XT3, Popular bibliography editing sites toronto XT4, Cray XMt, and Cray CX1, It is possible that some of these models have been used by the CSEC and are in use today.

An IBM System x iData Plex supercomputer began operation at the University of Toronto in In Nortel developed the first digital private branch exchange PBX in the world. That same year Nortel announced its "Digital World" project, which foresaw the development and market introduction of a complete family of digital switching, transmission and business communications systems.

In Bell Canada began to conduct a fibre optic field trial to residential customers in Montreal. The Manitoba Telephone System began to introduce fibre optics in that province beginning with customers in Elie, in In CNCP Telecommunications the construction of a trans-Canada fibre optic network.

Bythe national fibre optic system in Canada stretched kilometers across the country and included underwater fibre links to PEI and Newfoundland. Eight fibres are reserved for Trans-Canada traffic. On 1 JulyCantel and Bell Cellular began popular bibliography editing sites toronto offer cell phone service in Canada. They used a technical standard known as CDMAwhich was compatible with mobile phone systems in the US but not elsewhere in popular bibliography editing sites toronto world.

The fax began to make its presence felt in offices across Canada in the early s. The Globe and Mail began to produce its contents in electronic form in The technique permits the short range popular bibliography editing sites toronto communication of Bluetooth equipped electronic popular bibliography editing sites toronto with each other for the purposes of information transfer.

It is designed to eliminate the need for wires and cables to connect such machines. The use of lasers became common throughout Canada during these years. The devices are usually found as components of larger systems. Lasers are used in the field of telecommunications, where they are act as the modulated light sources for fibre optic systems.

The high frequency of the pulsed beams of popular bibliography editing sites toronto they produce enables the transmission of large quantities of information and the absence of an electromagnetic field around the fiber optic cable lessens transmission loss and increases the security of the data. Lasers are also used in many mechanical manufacturing systems to start and stop processes, measure component size and monitor and maintain quality.

In public they are commonly found at the retail checkout counter, where they scan bar codes. They are also used to open and close doors for people and cars and are common in popular bibliography editing sites toronto washrooms, where they control the flow of water for taps and the flushing of urinals and toilettes.

Their use in medicine has been growing. They are used to "burn" plaque from clogged arteries, to remove the decayed portion of popular bibliography editing sites toronto in dental treatment and to treat vision problems related to retinal detachment and near sightedness lasik surgery.

The Lidara laser-based instrument, is used by meteorologists to determine the height of the cloud base. Smaller vehicles became popular in response to the oil crisis of In the Chrysler K platform introduced by that company formed the basis for the compact K-car.

Front wheel drive was widely introduced to North America by the Big Three US automakers beginning inwhen the Plymouth Horizon and Dodge Omni, both with transverse mounted engines, became available.

A wide variety of front wheel-drive-models were quickly offered to Canadians by other car makers. The air bag safety feature was introduced during these years. In the US, the model Oldsmobile Toronado was the first passenger car equipped with an air bag.

Popular bibliography editing sites toronto introduced air bags as an option in the Tempo in the US in and Crysler made them a standard professional personal essay site in Air bags popular bibliography editing sites toronto made available in the Canadian market as this feature became available in US models.

The popular bibliography editing sites toronto truck 18 wheelerbecame the dominant vehicle on the heavily used Highway Ontario. Containerizationwhich had headway in ocean shipping with the construction of terminals in Halifax, Montreal and Vancouver also led to the eventual elimination of the railway box car and began to make inroads in the trucking industry.

Light rail systems were custom speech services au in Edmonton, Alberta inCalgary, Alberta, in and Vancouver, British Columbia in The Ontario Highway Express Toll Road ETRopened in Toronto in to ease the burden of traffic on Highway which passes through the heart of the city to the south. Special technology is used to collect tolls without the use to toll booths. Regular users can equip their cars with a transponder that sends a signal to highway sensors when the vehicle enters and leaves the road.

For those vehicles without a transponder, special electro-optical sensors read the number plate and a bill for the toll is sent to the vehicle owner in the mail. In GM Canada introduced the Popular bibliography editing sites toronto service to Canadian and US customers who chose this option when purchasing a new car. Considered a safety feature, the service provides emergency services, vehicle diagnostics and directions to drivers on the road.

It is based on GPS technology as well as CDMA mobile phone technology provided in Canada by Bell Mobility. There is a hour emergency response centre in Oshawa for vehicles located in Canada. In the s, a national weather radar surveillance system for aviation and general use was established.

The initial system, the Canadian weather radar networkestablished by Environment Canada, became operational in and consisted of 18 weather popular bibliography editing sites toronto using the 5 centimetre wavelength C-Band and one using the ten-centimeter wavelength S-Band. In that organization received approval to add another 12 radars and to upgrade the system to the Pulse-Doppler radar standard.

Also in the responsibility for air traffic control in Canada was transferred from Transport Canada to Nav Canada. The very large and complex control system operated by that organization uses a number of technologies, including ground-based navigation aids, 46 radars and six Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast systems, which are based on global positioning technology. Technological improvements have also enhanced rail safety during these years.

These include a large number of incremental changes to elements of rolling stock including wheels, axles, trucks, couplers and brakes. There have also been improvements to tracks including continuous weld, concrete sleepers and switching techniques. Techniques of traffic control and communication have also been improved. The popular bibliography editing sites toronto of this machine was facilitated through the use of computer-aided design popular bibliography editing sites toronto. InBombardier Aerospace of Montreal, in cooperation with the National Research Council Canada began using robots for the assembly of its aircraft.

Factory farming of pigs and chickens in particular became a prominent feature of agriculture during these years. Large numbers of these animals are crowded into very large barns with controlled environments in an effort to maximize their growth and hence profit for the farmer. The use of antibiotics to fight infection, as well as the use of growth hormones is common. The growth in the number of these farms has been dramatic.

The Fraser Valley in British Columbia is home to the highest concentration of such farms in Canada and the number of farms there increased from 56 in to in The growth of genetically modified crops also became common. One of the most notable in this regard is canola.

Developed in Canada from rapeseed during the s by Keith Downey and Baldur Stefansson it is used to produce oil that is low in erucic acid and glucosinolate and has become a major cash crop in North America. A strain of canola with additional modification that made it resistant to herbicide was introduced in Canada in The use of computer-controlled robots in manufacturing computer-aided manufacturing as well as the closely associated, just-in-time inventory management technique, were pioneered in Canada by the popular bibliography editing sites toronto manufacturers, who introduced them to improve efficiency.

They were put to use in new auto manufacturing plants built, popular bibliography editing sites toronto Honda Canada in Alliston, Ontario and Toyota Canada in Cambridge, Ontario The techniques of robotic assembly-line manufacturing have improved over the years.

As of robots form the basis for automobile production in Canada with a number of facilities and companies using this technology, including city, company, model : Geomaticsa term that originated in Canada, is a technique of computer-based mapping that integrates information from a variety of sources including, cartography, remote sensing including images from RADARSATsurveying, global satellite navigation systems, geodesy and photogrammetry.

In the new century it has become an important tool used by Canadians in a variety of endeavours including, commerce, the environment, search and rescue, urban planning, defence and natural resource management popular bibliography editing sites toronto other things. The Geomatics Industry Association of Canada, founded inpresently has a membership of more than organizations.

The images have custom business plan editor site for university operational and scientific applications popular bibliography editing sites toronto their data is of use in geology, hydrology, agriculture, cartography, forestry, climatology, urbanology, environmental studies, meteorology, oceanography and other fields.

The technology cheap ghostwriters websites report sf offshore oil and more info extraction was introduced to Canada during these years.

In the facility began to pump oil from popular bibliography editing sites toronto sea bottom. The oil is stored in giant on-board popular bibliography editing sites toronto and continuously off-loaded by a fleet of dedicated shuttle tankers sites dissertation custom proofreading australia popular bibliography editing sites toronto it to the shore-based oil refinery at Come-by-Chance, Newfoundland.

The platform itself rests on the ocean floor best thesis editor websites pumps oil from the sea bottom. However, unlike the Hibernia facility, the oil flows directly into a Floating Production Storage and Offloading FPSO vessel, the Terra Nova FPSOwhere it is processed und popular course work writing websites toronto by: stored.

The oil in the storage tanks is then removed by a shuttle tanker. A popular bibliography editing sites toronto oil production facility in the same area, the White Rose oil fieldoperated by Husky Petroleum, which began operation in also uses a Floating Production Storage and Offloading FPSO vessel, popular bibliography editing sites toronto SeaRose FPSO.

Undersea pipelines, the first in Canada and part of the Sable Offshore Energy Project have been introduced to transport gas from undersea wells off the coast of Nova Scotia since Gas was discovered near Sable Island in with the first platform and well head installed in the Thebaud field in Other fields have been connected via undersea pipeline including the North Triumph, Venture, Alma and South Venture. Other notable energy popular bibliography editing sites toronto included, the check this out east coast Ocean Ranger drilling platform, which sank in a storm in with the loss of all aboard, the Nova Scotia Power Corporation tidal generating station, Annapolis, and the Darlington Nuclear Generating StationDarlington, Ontario, The construction of large-scale hydro-electric plants far from electric markets lead to the introduction of techniques for long distance electric power transmission.

These techniques were used at a number of sites, including the W. C Bennett hydro station in British Columbia inChurchill FallsLabrador, and the Robert-Bourassa generating station, the La Grande-3 generating station, the La Grande-4 generating station popular bibliography editing sites toronto, and the La GrandeA generating station, all in Quebec.

Biotechnology involves modifying living organisms to serve human goals. Biological techniques are derived from a number of sciences including, biology, chemistry, organic chemistry, biochemistry, genetics, botany, zoology, microbiology and embryology popular bibliography editing sites toronto name a few. Ina number of Canadian companies and university research organizations operating in the field of biotechnology established the Industrial Biotechnology Association of Canada, also known as BIOTECanada.

Inthe industry consisted of companies offering biotechnologically based services and products in the following sectors: human health firmsagriculture 89 firmsfood processing 54 firmsenvironment 33 firmsbioinformatics 16 firms popular bibliography editing sites toronto, natural resources 21 firms and aquaculture 15 firms. This web page of the most widely known, canola was developed in Canada through selective popular bibliography editing sites toronto in Canola oil is popular bibliography editing sites toronto in food products and in non-food items such as lipstick, candles, bio-fuels and newspaper ink.

One of the largest suppliers of genetically modified seeds for food crops and animal feed in Canada is Monsanto Canada, established in Winnipeg in Medical treatment advanced during these years. The use of lasers and computers became important parts of medical treatment. Computers were essential in the development of new medical imaging devices such as the CAT cheap dissertation results proofreading websitepositron popular bibliography editing sites toronto tomography and the MRI.

Minimally invasive surgery, also known as laparoscopic surgeryreduced surgical damage to patients. Lasers were used with catheters for clearing blocked arteries and catheters with small cameras provided images of conditions inside the body. Coronary bypass surgery became commonplace. Laser eye surgery became popular in the s and was used to improve visual acuity for the near-sighted.

New chemical chemotherapy combinations helped prolong the lives of cancer patients. Techniques for the long-term application of medication through the use of a skin patch or implants appeared during these years. A large number of medical drugs List of bestselling drugs for treating a wide variety of ailments such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, arthritis, allergies, anemia, depression, asthma, osteoporosis and diabetes, became available to Canadians during this period.

Between andrecipients of tainted blood provided by the Canadian Red Cross were infected with the HI virus. Between and30, Canadian transfusion recipients were infected with hepatitis C from tainted blood.

About of those who received bad blood have died or are expected to die as a result. An investigation known as the Royal Commission of Inquiry on the Blood System in Canada was launched in and issued its final report in A private company, IVF Canada of Scarborough, was the first to begin offering in vitro fertilization IVF in Canada beginning in Since that date the company has recorded a number of Canadian "firsts" in this field, including the first IVF pregnancy, first IVF twins, the first IVF triplets and the first baby born from a frozen embryo.

There were innovations in home design and construction during this period. Houses generally became bigger. New materials such as vinyl siding became common and often replaced more expensive brick for home exteriors. The car port and garage became widespread features and the latter was often located close to the curb, creating a rather crowded streetscape. The home dishwasher and the microwave oven were introduced. Large-screen televisions usually of popular movie review writer websites nyc cathode ray or projection type were found in many homes.

The Sony Walkmanintroduced inquickly gained popularity as a means for listening to music on the go. There were innovations in the field of domestic cuisine including the introduction of microwave popcorn.

Inthe development of continue reading susceptor bag a paper bag impregnated with an aluminum-coated polyester filmallowed popcorn therein to be popped in a microwave oven without scorching. The compact disc CD and the digital video disc DVD were introduced at this time. The CD, which appeared inbecame a favourite format for musical recordings.

By most music stores in Canada had phased out the LP and replaced it with the CD. It was also used for other purposes including data storage in the form of the CD-ROM. A closely related format, the DVD, with greater storage capacity than the CD, was introduced in InAmeric Disc of Drummondville, Quebec began to manufacture CDs and afterDVDs and has become one of the largest suppliers of this product in North America.

The infrared-based TV content editing services ca control became popular with Canadians in the early s.

Video popular bibliography editing sites toronto have become a wildly popular popular bibliography editing sites toronto of entertainment especially for youth, since the s. The earliest video game dated from and a number of devices were produced in the s and s. However, it was the development of the computer chip that led to their popularization. The coin-operated arcade game Pong introduced by Atari in was the first to become widely available.

Beginning in PC gaming became popular, exploiting the flexibility and increasing popularity of the personal computer. In Nintendo released its Game Boy, the first of the hand-held electronic games. Game imagery became more elaborate with the introduction of the bit chip that was featured in the Sony PlayStation released in The bit, sixth generation of video games was born with the introduction of the Sega Dreamcast in These technologies found a place in the Canadian consumer market popular bibliography editing sites toronto the moment of their introduction and Canadian companies have played a role in their development, with hardware makers like ATI Technologies developing high-powered video chips for game imagery and software companies developing a number of games.

Gore-Texa breathable, waterproof textile, was patented in the US in Clothing made from this popular bibliography editing sites toronto and designed popular bibliography editing sites toronto outdoor all-weather, sporting, athletic and recreational activity became available in Canada shortly thereafter. The theme park became popular in the s and the technology of thrill is the main popular bibliography editing sites toronto. The most popular thrill ride, the Mindbender Galaxyland is the largest indoor triple-loop roller coaster in North America.

The Drop of Doom was another featured attraction until closed in the popular bibliography editing sites toronto s. The slot machineso dear to gamblers, was introduced during this period. Casinos have been built in Windsor, Caesars WindsorNiagara Falls, Niagara Fallsview Popular bibliography editing sites toronto Resort and Orillia, Casino RamaOntario, Montreal, Montreal CasinoGatineau, Casino du Lac Leamy and Baie St.

Paul, Casino de CharlevoixQuebec, Halifax, Casino Nova ScotiaNova Scotia and in Vancouver, the River Rock Casino ResortBritish Columbia. Other Canadian financial institutions followed this lead and by the s the ATM was available throughout Canada. These two technologies greatly improved the effectiveness of the check-out procedure and improved inventory management as well, through the associated computer accounting of stock.

This was one of the factors leading to the technique of just-in-time inventory management for retail, commercial and industrial undertakings. The payment of consumer purchases at the retail checkout counter through the use of an electronic debit card was introduced across Canada in Known as Interacthe system allows the consumer to swipe his personal card and with the use of a personal identification number have the amount of the purchase electronically deducted from his or her bank account.

The service has since become very popular. Initially developed by Laidlaw Waste Systems for the Kitchener, Ontario, init was introduced to Ontario municipalities inby Ontario Multi-Material Recycling Incorporated OMMRIand promoted by Nyle Ludolph, editing websites dissertation abstract custom phd for became known as the Popular bibliography editing sites toronto of the Blue Box.

The concept involved the use of blue plastic boxes which were distributed to home owners, who in turn filled them with recyclable refuse and placed popular bibliography editing sites toronto at curbside for weekly pickup. The refuse was taken to specially designed plants, just click for source materials were sorted and recycled.

The technique became popular in municipalities across Canada in the years that followed. A number of technologies, including clay and plastic liners were used to contain the smell and leachate.

The largest in Canada, the Keele Valley Landfill was operated by the City of Toronto from untilwhen it was closed because it was full. Popular bibliography editing sites toronto CFCsthe gas propellants used in aerosol spray cans, became a target for environmental concern in the s and s when research demonstrated that they had a harmful effect on the ozone layer in the atmosphere.

The problem with choice to reuse is still not available. Significant new bridges included the Alex Fraser BridgeVancouver,the Skybridge TransLinkVancouver, and the Confederation BridgeNB-PEI, In more recent times the need for the role of the state has diminished in the presence of a larger private sector.

In the latter part of the 20th century there is evidence that Canadian values prefer public expenditures on social programmes at the expense of public spending on the maintenance and expansion of public technical infrastructure. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. Technological and industrial history of 21st-century Canada. Science and technology in Canada. Canadian government scientific research popular bibliography editing sites toronto. Canadian industrial research and development organizations.

Canadian Mining Hall of Fame. Canadian university scientific research organizations. Energy policy of Canada. Former tallest buildings in Canada by province and territory. History of the petroleum industry in Canada. History of aviation in Canada.

List of aircraft of the Canadian Air Force. List of airlines of Canada. List of airports in Canada. List of bridges in Canada. List of Canadian Navy ships. List of infantry weapons and equipment of the Canadian military. List of reservoirs and dams in Canada. Nuclear power in Canada. Digital television in Canada. Timeline of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Scientific research in Canada. Economic history of Canada.

The Road to Trinity. New York: William Morrow. Main article: Bibliography of Science and technology in Canada. Canadians - Persons of significance. Popular bibliography editing sites toronto Territories capital cities. World Wars and Interwar Years — Great Plains Canadian Prairies.

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Citation Machine: Format & Generate Citations – APA, MLA, & Chicago

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